James Pollard = Mary Hall
| ↳ other children
Samuel Pollard = Catherine Hughesdon
| ↳ other children
James Pollard = Susanna Bourn
| ↳ other children
William Pollard = Lucy Binns
| ↳ other children
Francis Edward Pollard = Mary Spence Watson
Francis Edward Pollard was born on the 12th September 1872, in Holmesdale Road, Reigate, Surrey. He appears to have been named after the noted photographer Francis Frith, whose employment his father left to go to Manchester, and with whom his father clearly enjoyed a warm friendship. This move happened soon after Francis's birth—he spent his childhood at Sale, Cheshire, under the special care of his sister Sophie.1
Baby Frank Pollard
Frank Pollard, 1874
In 1881 he was a scholar, living with his family and a general servant at 9 Holmefield, Sale, Cheshire. By 1882 the family had moved to Eccles. After education at local schools, he attended the Quaker school at Ackworth from 1883 to 1887, where at 14 years 9 months he was first in the list (i.e. head of the school). In 1885—described by his brother Bedford as "a little scholar" —he accompanied Bedford at his wedding at York. From 1887 to 1889 he was at Bootham school, where he was in the cricket and football first XIs. A schoolfellow recollected of him that he was
. . . the licensed jester in Benjamin Le Tall's classes at Bootham. He might interrupt and say anything. Anyone else was served ten columns.
Frank Pollard at Bootham (seated on floor, R)
He took a London Matric. (First Division) in 1889, and won the Bootham leaving scholarship for that year.2
After one year at the Flounders Institute, where he took the London Intermediate Examination in Arts (First Division), he returned to Bootham as a junior master; he was there from 1890 to 1894. He appears in the 1891 census as an assistant school master, living at the Friends' Boys School, 49 & 51 Bootham, York. In May 1892 he made a maiden speech at the Friends' Discussion Society, on the subject of Women Suffrage, which at that date he opposed (the vote went in favour). In June that year he played Malvolio in Twelfth Night—not the last occasion on which theatrical talents were called upon. In February 1893 he had to be vaccinated against smallpox, for a score or so cases had been reported in York.3
In 1894, with a Friends' Teacher's Scholarship, he went to Owen's College, Manchester, where he gained a London University BA in October 1895. In July 1896 he gained the Cobden Club Prize in Political Economy, at Owens, and in August a London MA in Mental and Moral Science (Philosophy) (he came fourth in the examination, after falling victim to influenza on the last day). In August 1897 he gained a Victoria University Teacher's diploma—a qualification only recently established (Arthur Rowntree being almost the other Friend schoolmaster who possessed it). He remained as a tutor at Dalton Hall, Victoria Park, till 1899.4
In the summer of 1894 he spent two weeks at Fortun, in Norway, near where the Spence Watson family were staying, and in contact with them. Possibly he had come to know them through Arnold Spence Watson, who was also at Dalton Hall; although it's also possible he knew them through Hugh Richardson. He certainly knew his future wife [M1] Mary Spence Watson by 1897. It was apparently at Frank's suggestion that Mary went on the yachting holiday in the Western Isles, with a group of young people including himself, and it was aboard the Griffin that they fell in love. At the end of November 1897 Frank helped to nurse Arnold Spence Watson, during his final days at Dalton Hall.5
An 1897 testimonial from the principal at Dalton Hall comments:
. . . I should wish to add that his mind is of an unusually clear order, and that he ranks in this respect high among the best students who have been with us.
This mental lucidity bore fruit on every side. It was for instance a treat to read the Classics with him, so well-weighed, concise, apt, and idiomatic, was his translation. His contribution to any debate did much to dispel any possible fog. And the value of this clearness of mind when he taught was, of course, hardly to be over-estimated.
Indeed, socially—in the games and other recreations, morally—by his example and in other much-valued ways, and intellectually—in such manner as I have described, he was a growing force in the Hall.
During his third Session his name was added to the Hall Staff, not so much because there were, at that time, many specific duties requiring discharge, as because the Committee desired by this act to recognise the position he had won.
I found him an efficient, conscientious, and loyal colleague.
It gives me great satisfaction to have this opportunity of bearing the above testimony, and also to know that my successor has secured F.E. Pollard's services for the Session about to commence, assigning him greatly increased duties.5A
In January 1899 he presented a paper on 'The Training of the Will', to the Friends' Guild of Teachers, meeting at Birmingham. In March he gave a lecture on '"The Inner Self," a Psychological Study,' at the Manchester Friends' Institute. In the same year he returned to Bootham as a senior master. He was sorry to leave Manchester, but glad to get back into a school again. He was to teach at Bootham for 21 years, altogether. In the early days there he lived at either 51 or 20 Bootham—the 1901 census finds him boarding as a schoolmaster at the Friends' School, 51 Bootham. In 1901, present at the annual gathering of the Ackworth Old Scholars' Association, he proposed turning the Advisory Committee into a regular Executive Committee of the Association; this was agreed to, and he became a member of the new committee. In 1903 he was secretary of the Old York Scholars' Association.6
In 1899 he spent a month in Scotland with the Spence Watson family. His and Mary's courtship seems to have been troublesome, with Frank passionately in love, and wanting marriage, but Mary much more reserved about expressing her feelings, and constantly beset by doubts; he may have become diffident about proposing, for when he finally did the consensus of opinion was that he could have successfully carried it off long before. Mary finally said Yes, on the platform of Northallerton station, at the end of August 1903. Frank wrote to Mary's father for permission to marry, and in a letter to Mary the same day (31st August 1903, which they regarded as their engagement date) wrote: "I feel as happy as seventeen kings, and prouder than any" . . .7
In December 1903 Frank visited the workhouse in York, with Mary, who noted the comments of the women residents: "he's proper", "he is a fine young gentleman & will make a splendid husband", &c. In February 1904 Frank suggested that the wedding should take place in Easter, at Ackworth, where his mother lived. In fact it eventually took place on the 3rd August 1904, at the meeting house in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. After a reception at Bensham Grove, the couple spent a month honeymooning in Arran. They settled at 18 Bootham Crescent, York, moving there on the 3rd September 1904. Their children were: Robert Spence Watson (1907–1984), Margaret Watson (1909–1986), Caroline Watson (1912–1987), and (I1) Ruth (1914–1982).8
By 1903 Frank had become Secretary of the Friends' Guild of Teachers. He taught many subjects at Bootham, but English and History were his chief. One former pupil later recollected that Frank Pollard kept order in class by the use of sarcasm. A letter to Mary, from shortly before their marriage, includes a wonderful picture of a typical working day for him, from the Bootham years:
6.40 was woken up by the bell—had a bath, dressed & shaved in 20 minutes—rather good.
7.0 watched the Lower Senior prepare Cicero, while I corrected some English papers.
7.30—breakfast—porridge & fish—letter from Mary, in which she says she encloses a bill, but doesn't.
8.30 heard Knight give a lesson on Circulating Decimals.
9.15 instructed some youths in Simultaneous Quadratic Equations.
10.0 Cicero's Oration against Catiline—with the Lower Senior.
10.45-11.45 no class—corrected English, prepared Caesar, read the newspaper, ate biscuits & cheese.
11.45 read Caesar with the Upper Senior.
12.30-1.30 Play time. Corrected English, &c: read paper on lawn.
2.0 coffee in the masters room.
2.30-3.40 set Senior to write essays on 'How to Bat', 'Chinese Labour', 'Superstitions', 'The Channel Tunnel', 'As Civilization advances, Poetry almost necessarily declines' (a sentence from Macaulay's Essay on Milton), & so on—one to be chosen of course. Also Ancient History—Aeschylus & Sophocles.
4.0 made some afternoon tea: Sturge & Knight came—I criticized the latter's lesson this morning somewhat. Then cricket for an hour & a half. After it (it's rather a close day) I tried using two baths, rushing straight from a hot one & plunging into a cold one—much nicer than sponging oneself & cold streams trickling about one's corpus.
6.30 tea. a balmy evening—watched Sturge & Knight play tennis for a bit, then came in to write to my betrothed.9
INTERESTING WEDDING IN NEWCASTLE.
In the presence of a large gathering of relatives and friends, the wedding took place yesterday afternoon at the Friends' Meeting House, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, of Mr Francis Edward Pollard, of Bootham School, York, son of the late Mr W. Pollard, of Eccles, and Miss May [sic] Spence Watson, daughter of Dr R. Spence Watson, of Bensham Grove, Gateshead. The bridesmaids were Miss Spence Watson, and Miss Yewdell, of Leeds. Mr Sturge, of York, officiated as best man. Amongst those present were Dr Spence Watson, Mrs Spence Watson, Mr T. Pumphrey, Mr J. Wigham Richardson, Mr Lionel Clapham, Mr Henry Armstrong, the Rev Canon Moore Ede, Mr Jefferson Stephens, Mr C.J. Dymond, Mr Percy Corder, the Rev Mr Pollard (brother of the bridegroom), Mr James Watson, Mr David Richardson, Dr Merz, Mr J.W. Edmondson, and Mr Henry Richardson, and many ladies. At the close of the wedding ceremony a short address was delivered by Mr T. Pumphrey, followed by a prayer by Mr Dymond. Canon Moore Ede also gave a brief address. A reception, which was numerously attended, was afterwards held at the residence of the bride's parents. The wedding presents included a beautiful silver dish from the Gateshead Women's Liberal Association, and a breakfast dish from the employees of Dr Spence Watson. Later the happy pair proceeded to Scotland, where the honeymoon is to be spent.
Shields Daily News, 1904-08-04
Frank and Mary Pollard, 1904
For three weeks from mid-January 1905 Frank was ill, perhaps in part a response to his nerves having been upset in December, as Mary reported; he was well enough by the 26th, however, to read a paper to Yorkshire Quarterly Meeting on 'The educational ground work.' In mid-April he accompanied Mary to the Canary Islands, returning after a week there. In October he canvassed in York for Bowes Morrell, the first time he had ever canvassed.10
During his time at Bootham Frank continued to play cricket for the school First XI9B. His batting averages were:
Most in innings
32 (not out)
45 (not out)
2nd worst of 6
His bowling averages were:
lowest of 6
lowest of 4
2nd worst of 4
In mid-February 1906 Frank was so busy that Mary felt she hardly ever saw him. At least, however, he wasn't playing football at that time, after a knee injury in January. His general health that term was much improved. In 1906 he and Mary visited Grasmere and Ireland. The following year they holidayed in Coxwold and Bridlington. Frank took singing lessons in 1907, and when he sang at the school concert that year he was "tremendously cheered".11
In February 1908 Frank made an unsuccessful application for the post of Assistant Professor in Education at Leeds. A testimonial by S. Alexander, professor of philosophy at the University of Manchester and former fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, reads (in part):
It gives me great pleasure to write on behalf of my friend and former pupil Mr F.E. Pollard [ . . . ]. Mr Pollard was one of my first honours pupils here and one of the ablest. [ . . . ] He is a man of quiet but real intellectual force with a capacity of brief and lucid expression; and he has the corresponding gifts of character, quiet force and refinement. He has had a long experience of teaching. He was a tutor at Dalton Hall for a few years, & since then he has been many years at the Bootham School at York. He is in my opinion excellently fitted by capacity and experience in such a post. He would be a most wholesome influence, and I venture warmly to support his claims for consideration by the authorities of the University.12
In March 1908 Frank's weight was recorded at 10 st. 13 lbs. He had noted in 1903 that he was 5ft 6in tall, "at least".13
The Pollard family spent their summer holiday of 1908 at Kirk Newton, after a week with Mary's parents at Bensham Grove, Gateshead. In December that year Frank presided as clerk to the monthly meeting for the first time; he had been assistant clerk for two years, and was to remain clerk till October 1910.14
In 1909 the family holidayed at Bensham and Summerbridge. On the 29th November that year the family moved to 44 Queen Anne's Road, York.15
In January 1910 Frank gave an address on 'Inspiration' at Bolton meeting-house. In May that year he was interviewed for the post of Headmaster of Leighton Park school, but was unsuccessful. Mary recorded that "On the whole we are glad . . ." . Arthur Rowntree, headmaster at Bootham, had given him the following testimonial:
Mr F.E. Pollard has been a Master on the Staff here since 1899.
His chief teaching has been in History, Literature, Latin, Mathematics. He has directed the studies of the Student Teachers, and has been responsible for their work in the Theory and Practice of Education; he also supervised their practical teaching. He has been Form-Master to the Upper boys for nearly five years.
It will be seen from the statement of Mr Pollard's academic successes that he is a man of marked ability, and that he holds the Diploma of Education in the Victoria University. He is an exceptionally clear thinker and careful teacher. In connection with his History teaching he has been particularly successful in getting his class to read and think for themselves.
His discipline is entirely satisfactory. He is interested in the pupils in School and out; his influence throughout the School is most helpful.
I have heard a large number of addresses from Mr Pollard on religious, moral and literary subjects. I do not think I have ever heard any that have been more lucid; his addresses, specially directed to boys and given in the School or in the Meeting House, have proved stimulating and invigorating.
I should regret to lose him from my staff, and recognise that he would be a difficult man to replace.16
The 1910 family holidays were at Heugh Folds in Grasmere, and Beadnell.17
From the outset, Frank took an active part in York Liberal Party. From 1910 to 1913 he was a York city councillor, sitting with the Progressives on the Health and Education committees, and for a short time on the Musical Entertainments Committee. In November 1913 he was defeated in the election, coming last in the poll; he and Mary were "dreadfully disappointed".18
In early 1911 Frank and Mary Pollard spent two months touring Italy, Greece, Palestine and Egypt, though the tour was grievously marred by the death of Mary's father in March. Frank had tried to enter into the spirit of the cruise, singing in the concert on board, climbing the Great Pyramid, and nearly winning the "gentlemen's potato race" in the sports competition; he was a great comfort to Mary at this time. In Constantinople he found the cosmopolitan crowd "an education itself for the insular mind." In summer that year they spent two weeks at Dunstansteads and a further three at Bensham. The following year they holidayed at Rayheugh Farm and Dunstansteads, and in 1913 at Bensham, Patterdale, and Bamburgh.19
In April 1912 Frank reported to Yorkshire QM on behalf of the Committee on Peace Methods and Organisation.20
Frank's views on women's suffrage were evidently changing, doubtless under Mary's influence: at York city council, in October 1912, he moved the (successful) resolution in favour of the (women's) Franchise Bill; and in June 1913 he noted sympathetically his attendance at a large and fine meeting of the Friends' Women Suffrage League.21
On the 1st February 1914 he registered with the Teachers' Registration Council.22
The family spent two weeks at Sleights at the end of April 1914. On the 10th July 1914 they moved house, to 8 Clifton Dale, York. They had a succession of maids there, as well as a washerwoman and a gardener once a week, and after November a nurse for their youngest child, Ruth. Their summer holiday that year was again at Bensham, apart from a week Frank spent at Patterdale with his sister-in-law Jeannie. The holiday was inevitably overshadowed by the outbreak of the Great War. In a letter from Bensham, dated the 30th August 1914, Frank wrote:
But the world is in the grip of tragedy: & if the crimes & follies of humanity lead (a dim hope!) to some compensating good, don't let us pretend they are anything else but crimes and follies all the same. [ . . . ] One lesson I take to be very clear: we have all professed to be workers for peace—but many have considered that the only sensible way to secure it was to help to make their respective countries as powerful militarily—with armaments & allies—as possible. That method is now damned for ever more! So much so that we even pretend we are fighting against it! But how will months of mutual carnage help us to begin the other method which alone can save mankind? Let those who see a gleam of light keep their eyes on it & point the way. I confess I find it hard to find.23
By July 1915 Frank was Secretary (or Chair) of the Yorkshire Federation of the Union of Democratic Control, which position he held for some time. The family holidayed at Heugh Folds and Bensham that year. During 1915 Frank was released by Bootham to spend half his time working for the Northern Friends Peace Board, and from then on, for the duration of the war, he spent much time lecturing, around the north, north-east, and Scotland. He seems chiefly to have been delivering a series of four lectures on The Individual, the State, and Humanity, the individual lectures being on 'The Individual and the State,' The Community of Nations,' 'The Need of Internationalism,' and 'The Organisation of the World.' He spoke at London Yearly Meeting in May 1916. He and Mary also did work for the No Conscription Fellowship during the war. He was so busy at this time that Mary took to making particular note in her diary of the weekends he was at home, rather than the contrary. In March 1917 he was appointed convenor of the Commission on 'National Implications,' for the projected Peace Conference of All Friends. In October that year he wrote to the Yorkshire Post, on the position of the Society of Friends on conciliation, and in condemnation of retaliation. In March 1918 he spoke at Sunderland meeting house, on the Quaker peace testimony. In 1919 he again spoke at London Yearly Meeting; and in the same year he co-authored a memorandum to the Government on the blockade of Russia, urging the withdrawal of troops. It was said that "His work for peace was outstanding."24
Frank applied for the post as full-time secretary to the National Peace Council in November 1919, by which time he had already determined to leave Bootham; he was the successful candidate from a field of 30-40, and was offered the post in December. His acceptance meant that he gave up teaching just before he would have become eligible for a pension. In recognition of this, and of his good work, in 1920 he was personally given £500 by Joseph Rowntree. Around the Christmas and New Year of 1919-20 Frank was sufficiently ill that at one point diphtheria was suspected. He took his last class at Bootham on the 15th March 1920. It was said of him that "Pollard's clear incisive mind, his ready wit and his keenness in pursuit of essentials in teaching made him a congenial colleague though he did not suffer fools gladly and boys sometimes felt him slightly cold and hard." On the 7th April he went to London to start work, staying as a paying guest with his sister Sophie Sparkes in Wembley. A week later he purchased White Knights House in Reading, which he had viewed in March, for £1250, with a ground rent of £10 p.a. In May he spoke at London Yearly Meeting, on protesting about war. In June he organized a successful National Peace Congress in Glasgow. At the All Friends Conference at Devonshire House in August, he spoke on War and Liberty, and introduced the discussion on the League of Nations. On the 11th October he gave a talk, at Devonshire House, on 'The Class War and How to Avoid It' . In mid-October 1920 the family finally came back together, taking up residence at Whiteknights House, Eastern Avenue, Reading. Around this time he joined the Friends Peace Committee, of which he was a member till his death, Vice-Chairman by 1926, Acting Chairman by 1928, and Chairman from 1931–41.25
In November 1920 he was the convener of a committee appointed by Meeting for Sufferings to consider relief service in Ireland. In 1921 he was President of the Friends' Guild of Teachers. In April 1921 he attended Irish Yearly Meeting in Dublin, "in the Sinn-Fein-Black & Tan days, when cars of British troops, netted in to keep bombs off, drove about the streets, the men with their rifles pointed & ready" . . . In May he spoke at London Yearly Meeting, on peace and disarmament. In June the census finds him in the twelve-roomed Whiteknights House, 29 Eastern Avenue, Reading, living with all his family except his son, as well as a German domestic servant (Marie Dietz) and an Austrian schoolboy (Anton Niessner); he gave his occupation as secretary to the National Peace Council, working at 75 Avenue Chambers, [London] W.C.1. Later that year he visited Washington DC (arriving at Ellis Island on Cunard's Albania on the 5th December) to observe the disarmament conference on behalf of the Society of Friends; in January 1922, he had three articles on the subject in The Friend, of which two were front-page features. He also took in a busy speaking schedule during December, in Swarthmore, Philadelphia, and Baltimore; he reported to Yorkshire Quarterly Meeting in January 1922, and presented the report of the Peace Committee to Yearly Meeting in May.26
In the course of 1921 Frank left his job, for reasons not entirely clear. His daughter Ruth wrote that "It was found that he was unsuitable", his son Robert that "It may be doubted if Francis Pollard's proper field was that of an organising secretary. His forte was rather exposition, teaching, and critical analysis." His son-in-law Sidney Beck said that "it was probably a mistake for him to get involved in that administration of a new peace organisation, which was still struggling to establish itself, and with all the intense changes after the 1914–18 war there were bound to be conflicts of interests, and ideas—and my understanding is that he became involved with a dispute with at least some members of the committee—may have been one in particular who felt the National Peace Council should be going in quite a different direction [ . . . ]—and after about twelve months, matters came to a head, and they accepted Frank Pollard's resignation". A recent researcher, Martin Ceadel, reached a simpler conclusion: by the autumn of 1921 financial difficulties compelled the NPC to consider closing down, but "In the event it decided merely to release Pollard, whose salary it could no longer afford, and carry on with a part-time secretaryship" . . . .27 This is not altogether borne out by the evidence of Mary Pollard's diary. On 5 October she recorded:
After Committee Meeting of Council, Mr. Baillie-Weaver told F. they had decided he was not the right man for the post, tho' they recognized his undoubted abilities. It has come as a great shock to us both, & I think they are making a great mistake. He has had a very hard task with subs. so hard to get, & has done splendid work on the "Peace with Ireland Council" & now the Disarmament Campaign, & the last Annual Meeting at B'ham was such a success. He has not been helped by the Council as he shd have been, & they evidently do not realize all he has done. Miss Huntsman v. angry & threatens to resign. It is a bitter, humiliating thing for poor Frank, & I am very angry about it. It is a shame.28
She records that on 27 October he was given three months' notice; at some point it appears they even passed a motion of no confidence in him:
Poor Frank, he is so brave & wont say a word against anyone, tho' it is so humiliating for him, & he specially feels the attitude of the 3 Friends who were on the special Comtee Bertram Pickard, Edward Backhouse & Harrison Barrow. He is to go to the office till a new man is appointed & to get his salary anyway for 3 mos.29
In July 1922 he made an unsuccessful application for a post as Secretary to the Education Committee of the City of York. A testimonial by John W. Graham, principal of Dalton Hall, Manchester University, reads:
Gentlemen, My friend Mr. F.E. Pollard tells me that he is applying for the post of Secretary to your body.
Mr. Pollard was formerly a student under my care at Dalton Hall, University of Manchester, and afterwards as Tutor, one of my colleagues. I have known him well and intimately, in many private and public connections, all his life.
He is a man of quite outstanding intellectual ability and force of character. His mind is both broad in outlook and in power of generalisation, and accurate in detail. He never blurs a fine distinction. He is clear and prompt when a decision is necessary, but too open minded to be hasty or dogmatic.
He has a great gift for forcible and incisive public speech, and is often chosen to make important utterances on behalf of the Society of Friends.
He would be a moral as well as an educational force in the City schools, and would discharge with a deep sense of duty all his professional service.
You are aware that he had a long and much valued experience in teaching. His culture, however, has never been limited by his professional labours, but is wide and far reaching, and his judgment on educational issues is correspondingly valuable.
As a colleague I always found him loyal and easy to work with.30
Although short-listed for the wardenship of Dalton Hall, he never got over the disappointment of not getting it—the last straw in a number of disappointments. He did not again take salaried employment; this imposed, especially in later years, a certain simplicity of life, but it also gave him time to serve Friends. The family lived largely on Mary's unearned income, though financial assistance came from various sources, including Mary's sister Bertha Morrell. Frank did occasional supply teaching at Leighton Park and Sidcot schools (Sidcot in spring 1923 and spring 1924), some lecturing for the WEA (including, in October 1928, a course which met in the library of Eton College) and the Educational Settlements Association, as well as a good deal of private tutoring in and around Reading (including, from November 1934 to July 1935, a nephew of the King of Egypt, Ismail Hassan, who had to pass Matric. before he could take the title of Prince!; he received a total of 18 guineas for this service).31
From 1921 to 1947 he was a member of the executive of the Friends Education Council.32
In May 1923 Frank spoke at London Yearly Meeting. That summer the family moved to 9 Denmark Road, Reading, which they were later to purchase (March 1928) for £1300. This year they holidayed in Switzerland. Around this time Frank acted as a member of the 'Copec' Conference Commission on Education, and in 1923 had a large hand in framing the report published under the title Can Religion Be Taught?, later reprinted in Up to Eighteen. 25 years later this was still seen as "a vital document, with a forward outlook". . . .33
During January and February 1924 The Friend ran a series of Frank's articles as 'Adult School Lesson Notes;' and in September a front-page review article by him. He had front page articles in The Friend again, in January and April 1925. From May 1924 Frank taught for a term at Sidcot. In 1925 he had the job of marking 400 London General Schools English History papers. In July he went out to Switzerland to collect his daughter Caro, who had been there since January for her health. The family holidayed at Heugh Folds that year.34
In February 1926 he had a front page article on 'Economics and War' in World Outlook, a supplement to The Friend. That month he had mumps, but employed his time productively, working on the editing of the History of Bootham School 1823–1923, which was published that year. In April he had a front page article in The Friend, on 'England and the World' , and in June he had a front page review. In May he spoke at Yearly Meeting in Manchester, in the report of the Peace Committee. The family took three weeks at St Davids, Pembrokeshire, in August 1926. In the autumn he had a series of articles in The Friend, on 'The Races of Mankind, and '"The Clash of Colour."' In October he had a front page article on 'Community and the State.' The family took three weeks at St Davids, Pembrokeshire, in 1926.35
In April 1927 he had a front page review article in The Friend. The magazine also ran a six-part article on 'Ideas of Value', from the end of May to the beginning of July. In the summer of 1927 the family spent three weeks at Wheelbirks, Stocksfield, Northumberland. Almost immediately afterwards Frank left for a fortnight in Geneva, preparation for upcoming lecturing on international issues, during which he attended several sessions of the Assembly of the League of Nations ("something that resembles or foreshadows a World Parliament"), and heard the French prime minister Aristide Briand and others speak. During September The Friend carried his article 'The League of Nations,' in four parts: Arbitration, Disarmament, The World's Workers, and Towards a World Commonwealth.36
He had front page articles in The Friend in February, March and May 1928. That year he published his Merttens lecture War and Human Values, his most important work on peace. This had been delivered at London Yearly Meeting on Saturday evening, the 26th May; the lecture "impressed Friends by its depth and lucidity." When the second edition was published, in 1953, the reviewer wrote that "Francis E. Pollard was one of the best of modern Quaker writers, with a style that had delightful echoes of the eighteenth century and of the Roman orators, strong, terse and beautifully shaped." The book itself was described as "a gem among the pebbles of peace literature—so nearly flawless as to seem to present an absolutely unchallengeable case." "One hopes that very many Friends and pacifists will turn again to it as one of the really first-rate utterances of twentieth-century Quakerism, and also as the authentic voice—one can hear his voice in its cadences—of a much beloved Friend." In the autumn he published 'The Universal Appeal of Christ,' in two sets of three articles in The Friend. By this time he was often reviewing books for The Friend—between 1924 and 1949 he published no fewer than 124 reviews there (from eight to thirteen a year from 1926 to 1932, though none at all from 1936 to 1938).37
In May 1929 he spoke for the Liberal candidate in the general election, the first time he had done so since 1914. Later that month he spoke at London Yearly Meeting. The occasion of his and Mary's silver wedding that year prompted a month's holiday on Arran for the family, in September. By December that year he was running a university extension course at Freshwater in the Isle of Wight, which required overnight visits every time he went; these continued until at least February 1930.38
In January 1930 Frank had a review article on the front page of The Friend. At London Yearly Meeting in May he spoke on disarmament, on membership, and on Tagore and Gandhi. In August-September the family holidayed on a houseboat on the River Yealm, in Devon. In September Frank left for Birmingham, for ten months' residential Woodbrooke Fellowship, during which he returned for occasional weekends only. In October and November The Friend published his article 'An Educated Electorate', in two parts.39
At London Yearly Meeting in May 1931 Frank spoke on reparations, as well as giving a public address on 'A Reasonable Religion.' The Pollard family spent a fortnight in the summer of 1931 in Saint Germain des Vaux, Normandy. During August and September The Friend serialised Frank's 'New Developments of the League of Nations.' Shortly after that, Frank went to Barchem, in the Netherlands, for a week—a Quaker establishment on the lines of Woodbrooke, at which he delivered two lectures. At the beginning of October he had a front page article in The Friend, on 'Reparations and the Economic Crisis.' That month Frank refused to vote, in the election for the National Government. In November he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on birthright membership.40
In February 1932 he joined the local Archaeological Society. That month he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on Japan. On the evening of the 18th May Frank Pollard gave the Swarthmore Lecture at Friends House, before more than 1000 people, on 'Education and the Spirit of Man'; it was well received. That year, too, he published Religion, Morals and the Intellect, which was a plea for the pre-eminence of reason in the religious life as well as other matters. For recreation that summer, Frank and Mary Pollard went with Ruth on a cycling tour of Shropshire. In December—apparently in recognition of the cost to the Pollard household of his voluntary labours—Frank received an unsolicited gift of £90 from friends, as well as £50 from "a friend whom you do not know".41
In 1932 he had his appendix out at the cottage hospital, the operation being performed by his doctor.42
In 1933 he wrote a "cautious" introduction to J. W. Graham, ed.: Psychical Experiences of Quaker Ministers. That year he was Clerk to the Betting and Gambling Committee of Meeting for Sufferings. In May he chaired the Swarthmore lecture, introduced the subject of Education, and spoke on disarmament, at London Yearly Meeting. He spoke on rearmament at Meeting for Sufferings in December, and to a joint conference on peace at Haywards Heath.43
In 1933 he was paid a total of 27/6 for his contributions to The Friend.44
In April 1934 Frank fought a bye-election to the town council, in Redlands ward, as an Independent Progressive; he lost, 768 votes to 493, to a brewery director, Captain Simonds. In May he opened the discussion on Friends' Peace Testimony, at London Yearly Meeting. In June he spoke on temperance, at Meeting for Sufferings; in July he took the chair for the Merttens Peace Lecture, at Friends House. The family holiday that year was at Sedbergh. In September Frank spoke at Meeting for Sufferings on the Disarmament Appeal, and in November on Traffic in Arms. In November he played Milton in a locally produced play Paradise Regained, at the Reading Institute. In December he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the Peace Committee constitution.45
In January and February 1935 he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the King's Semi-Jubilee and the Saar, respectively. On the 27th March 1935 the family moved to 22 Cintra Avenue, Reading (tel. Reading 81564), having sold 9 Denmark Hill for £1000. In May Frank contributed an article to The Friend on '25 Years of the Peace Movement. A Jubilee Survey.' That month he took the chair for the Christian Disarmament Conference, at Swanwick; he took an active part at Yearly Meeting, as usual. The family holidayed that year at St Marryen, Padstow, Cornwall.46
22 Cintra Avenue, Reading,
photographed by the maid, Florence Webb, in 1935
In March 1936 Frank spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the armaments increase. He was chair for some years of the Reading Refugee Committee, chair of the Reading branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation, chair of the Education Committee of the Reading League of Nations Union, and actively associated with the Proportional Representation Society, and later with the United Nations Association; he was also a member of the Cobden Club and the Free Trade Union. He was an admirer of the 19th century Liberal leaders, of Fox, Arnold, Marcus Aurelius, and Erasmus.47
In March 1937 he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the power of prayer. In May he spoke there again, as well as at Yearly Meeting in Bristol (on the reorganisation of the Peace Committee in relation to the Northern Friends Peace Board, and on preparation for ministry). In June 1937, as Chair of the Friends Peace Committee, he signed a public statement in condemnation of the bombing of Guernica. That year he holidayed with the family in Ireland. In August-September he attended the All-Friends Conference at Swarthmore and Haverford Colleges, near Philadelphia, where he chaired the commission on The Individual Christian and the State; he also visited Rhode Island. He had arrived at New York on the liner Georgic on 29th August 1937, and returned to England on the Aquitania. On New Year's Eve The Friend printed his 'The Community Path to Real Security.'48
In 1936 Frank was paid a total of 2 guineas for his contributions to The Friend; in 1937 it was 12/6; in 1938 £3-10-6; in 1939 17/6; and in 1940 1 guinea.49
At the end of December 1937 Frank affirmed as a JP; he remained a magistrate until compulsory retirement at the age of 75. He was a member of the local Justices' Club, of Reading Christian Council, the Magistrates' Association, and the Howard League for Penal Reform.50
In May 1938 Frank spoke at the Peace Committee weekend at Digwell Park, and spoke on Peace at London Yearly Meeting. He spoke to Meeting for Sufferings, on behalf of the Peace Committee, in July. After a short spring holiday in Holland that year, he and Mary took their summer holiday in Lyme Regis. At the beginning of November he chaired a public meeting on Peace and Justice, at Friends House; speakers included Fenner Brockway. Later that month he spoke at the special Yearly Meeting on Peace. In May 1939 he spoke on the refugee problem at Meeting for Sufferings, and opened the Yearly Meeting session on the Peace Committee, as well as speaking on conscription, national service, and temperance. In July he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the membership of tribunals (for conscientious objectors); and in September, reading a statement from the Peace Committee. 1939 saw a spring holiday in Cornwall and a summer holiday at Windermere and Heugh Folds; the 1939 Register recorded him as (tutor) retired, staying at Ashfield House, Ponsharden, Falmouth, Cornwall. In December that year Frank gave an address to Western Quarterly Meeting, on 'A Reasonable and Christian Peace.'51 The Pollards had a German refugee, Wolfgang Weyl [later known as Leonard Weyl], living with them for the whole of 1939, prior to his emigration to the USA; Frank was chairman of the Reading Refugee Committee.52
For many years Frank was chair of the Reading and District Liberal Association, then he resigned early in the war over the Liberal Party's official support of the war. In January 1940 he spoke to Meeting for Sufferings, on the Peace Committee's work. Later that month, with other Friends, he journeyed to America, by way of Geneva, to explore with Friends and leaders of the Peace movement in America possible steps towards international settlement. He spent a month, mainly in the Philadelphia area, but also visiting New York and Washington. In May he spoke at London Yearly Meeting, on Worship and Service. In September he submitted a letter to Meeting for Sufferings, which was warmly endorsed, to be sent to all preparative meetings for reading the following Sunday. He spoke at Meeting for Sufferings in York in December, on Friends and the Present Situation.53
In March 1941 Frank spoke at Meeting for Sufferings in Leicester, on the BBC and Liberty; he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings in York in April, and again in July, on India. In April Frank chaired a conference at Oxford, on what contribution Friends could make to the post-war world. In August he spoke at Yearly Meeting in York, on Planning and Freedom. In July 1942 he attended a conference at St Hilda's College, Oxford, on the Peace Testimony; in September he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on Concern for Peace. In November 1942 he had a bad fall in the blackout in Cintra Avenue, giving him a bad shock; it was long before he fully recovered—though he seems to have been well enough to give a talk on the history of Quakerism, at the Friends' Hall, Walthamstow, in early December. He spoke at Meeting for Sufferings in March 1943, then again in July, on Friends Relief Service. In early May 1943 he chaired a huge Liberal meeting in the town hall, addressed by Lord Samuel, Sir William Beveridge, and others.54
In 1942 Frank was paid a total of 2 guineas for his contributions to The Friend. In 1943 he received 2 guineas for invigilating. In 1944 he received 4 guineas for invigilating, and £1-16-0 from The Friend. In 1945 he received 2 guineas for invigilating. In 1946 he received 4 guineas for invigilating and 2 guineas for his contributions to The Friend.55
He spoke at Meeting for Sufferings in May 1944, and later that month at Yearly Meeting, on Power and Freedom in the Modern World. In July 1944, after high blood pressure was diagnosed in addition to existing heart troubles, Frank was advised to give up a lot of work, and to take great care.56
Normal holidays had been problematic during the war, though Mary now had the cottage, to which they were able to escape from time to time. In 1945 the family once again spent a fortnight together at Heugh Folds. In March 1945 Frank spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the San Francisco Conference, in April on Friends and Military Conscription, and in November, on Christian Peacemaking Campaign. He spoke at Yearly Meeting in May that year, defending Quaker schools.57
In February 1946 he took part in the discussion on Overseas Relief Policy at Meeting for Sufferings. He spoke at Yearly Meeting in May, on A Call for Dedicated Service; and at Meeting for Sufferings in July 1946 and May 1947. From August 1947 Frank was busy with Robert and Beatrice Pollard, in writing the book on Democracy and the Quaker Method, eventually published in 1949.58
In March 1948 Frank had heart trouble, and was in bed for at least a month, the family being warned that he was seriously ill. He was, however, able to speak at Meeting for Sufferings at the beginning of April. In November he had a bad heart attack, followed by another, less bad; but by January 1949 he was much improved, and able to resume court and committee work. In March 1949 he received £1-2-0 for invigilating.59
He was a pipe smoker, keen on cricket and crossword puzzles. In Reading he had been the very backbone of the local Book Club (the club's minute book records him reading to the group once in 1923, twice in 1924, four times in 1925, twice in 1926, six times in 1927, and three times in 1928). He had a sweet tenor voice, and often used to sing on Sunday nights. Once, at Bootham, he had sung an oratorio so beautifully that the Head cut out his sermon, saying nothing more was needed. A friend recalled that "Perhaps one of my most delightful memories is of him singing 'A Pair of Sparkling Eyes' at a week-end committee at Jordans!" At 74 he made a recording of three songs, accompanied by Mary on the piano; the record survives (side 1, side 2). Frank himself played the piano by ear, but only after Meeting on Sundays. He had a dry sense of humour and privately treasured an excellent collection of funny stories which he would draw on to illustrate his discussion with point, and a fine restraint. He was a very quiet, scholarly person, very formal-looking in his rather severe Edwardian dress—probably a bit awe-inspiring to young children. He was also seen as a most handsome man, of which he appeared oblivious.60
In December 1950 Frank received £1-11-3 in royalties. At the beginning of that month he spoke at Meeting for Sufferings, on the subject of Korea. Testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting was to record that "Some of his best work for the Society was done during his long membership of Meeting for Sufferings."61 For many years prior to his death Frank Pollard had been a valued member of the Anti-Slavery Society.62
In January 1951 Frank Pollard grew a beard; but there is no subsequent reference to this, so presumably he abandoned it.63
In March 1951 the Pollards spent a week with the Beck family in Totland Bay, on the Isle of Wight. Though he was suffering with angina, and developed a bit of a cough while he was there, when he got back he was suddenly taken much worse, and he died at about 9:00 p.m. on the 21st March 1951, at home at Cintra Avenue. The cause of death was given as 2nd coronary thrombosis, hypertension, and myocardial degeneration. His body was cremated at 3:30 on the 24th March, at Reading crematorium. He left £3958 13s. 7d. (£90,186 at 2005 values).64
In April 1951 the Reading Monthly Meeting Extension Committee minuted that:
In the desire that an Extension Committee should be worthy of its name, Frank Pollard constantly turned our thoughts to life beyond the borders of our own Society. His influence was at times uncomfortably bracing to us, his more cautious brethren, but we had cause over and over again to be thankful for his wide experience, his sound judgment and his unfailing courage.65
In the same month the Friends' Peace Committee—at its largest meeting for some years—noted that:
Francis Pollard joined the Peace Committee in 1920 and served on it continuously and conscientiously until his death. Despite increasing frailty he had attended eight out of nine Committees held in the last twelve months.
Among many other contributions which he made to our work it may be recorded that from 1932 until 1941 he was Chairman of the Committee; he was one of two Friends who visited American Friends on behalf of the Peace Committee in 1940; he served for many years on the General Purposes Committee and on numerous other sub-Committees and he wrote a number of pamphlets published by the Committee.
His clarity of mind, ability to focus discussion upon concrete proposals and his reconciling influence when different opinions were expressed have been invaluable. He will be best remembered, however, for his sound judgment and warm personality which continually influenced the decisions of the Committee.66
In his obituary in The Friend it was said that "His judgement was wise, he had an ability to focus discussions upon points for effective action, and his counsel in reconciling widely different points of view was frequently invaluable. Those who worked with him appreciated his clear, fearless and independent thinking and speaking." In the writer's view, "His work in politics for what he believed to be right never ceased, though it was never spectacular." Though an elder of his meeting, "He did not, perhaps, share the specific mystical experience of some Friends; to him the truth of religion was revealed in moral experience, and his life as well as his teaching showed the first place he gave to morality and ethics". According to the Testimony of Reading meeting, "He was neither mystic nor poet, and yet he had a deep appreciation of both mysticism and poetry which led him to draw apt and moving illustrations from both." "He had also a courage which came from deep within, subduing and transcending the nervousness of a naturally shy and diffident man." The Testimony concluded that "His spirit was beautiful and luminous, and through him we have partaken of the grace of God."67
Francis Edward Pollard was the youngest child of [I3] William and [K1] Lucy Pollard.68
1 birth certificate; Robert S.W. Pollard: 'Memoir of Francis E. Pollard', in F.E. Pollard (1953) War and Human Values, 2nd edn; Dictionary of Quaker Biography (Friends' House Library, typescript); 1881 census returns; David M. Blamires: 'Towards a Biography of William Pollard'; Journal of the Friends' Historical Society, Vol. 55 Nos. 3 & 4, pp.112-123; letters from Frank Pollard
2 TNA: RG 11/3506 f107 p9; David Blamires (October 1984) 'William Pollard 1828–1893', Friends' Quarterly; Pollard (1953); Edgar Barron Collinson: List of the Boys and Girls admitted to Ackworth School 1879–1930; Bootham School Register. 1914; J.W. Graham (source reference corrupted); The Friend XXIX Aug:232, The British Friend XLVII Oct:262; Bedford Pollard (1937) Quaker Reminiscences, London: Headley Brothers
3 Pollard (1953); Bootham School Register. 1914; letters from Frank Pollard; RG 12/3886 f100 p1; The Friend XXX Sept:260
4 Pollard (1953); Bootham School Register. 1914; letter to me from Bootham School Archivist; The Friend XXV:795, XXVI:446, XXVII:526; The British Friend XXXVI Jan:23, V Aug:231, 232, VIII Oct:274; testimonial by Theodore Neild, Dalton Hall, in my possession; Leeds Mercury, 1896-07-22; John A. Dell (May 1953), 'Francis E. Pollard', Bootham 25.1:9-10; Proceedings of the Ackworth Old Scholars' Association, Part XV, Eighth Month, 1896; the University of London student register records his MA in 1896 in "Philos. & Econ."; Teachers' Registration Council registers
5 testimonial by Theodore Neild, Dalton Hall, in my possession
6 Pollard (1953); letters from Frank Pollard; letter from Hugh Richardson to Mary Spence Watson 1 June 1897; Francis E. Pollard: diary; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard (Ms); Bensham Grove visitors' books
7 letters from Frank Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; letters of Mary Pollard; RG 13/4437 f5 p2; The British Friend VII Feb:34, Mar:76; The Friend XXXVIII:174, 1898-03-18; Bootham 1.3:208; Proceedings of the Ackworth Old Scholars' Association, Part XX, Eighth Month, 1901
8 my own speculation; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters from Frank Pollard
9 letters of Mary Pollard; Dictionary of Quaker Biography; marriage certificate; Pollard (1953); letters from Frank Pollard; inscription in When I Was a Child, by an Old Potter, intro. by Robert Spence Watson. London: Methuen, 1903; The Friend XLIV:546, The British Friend XIII Aug:240; book of newspaper cuttings compiled by Robert Spence Watson, now in Newcastle Central Library; Letters from Lucy Pollard to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Journal; source mislaid; The Friend XLVII:64, 1907-01-25; Mary S W Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c.; The Friend XLIX:192, 1909-03-19; The British Friend XVIII Apr:112; The Friend LII:374, 1912-05-31, The British Friend XXI June:180; daughter's birth certificate; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; The Times; GRO index
10 letters from Frank Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; diaries of Sidney & Ruth Beck (principally, but not exclusively, holidays), 1946–84; Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 1905-01-27
11 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
12 The Friend XXXIV:828, 1894-12-21, NS I:693, LII Supplement, LIII, LIV School Supplement
13 Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels, Ms; Diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
14 testimonial by S. Alexander, in my possession
15 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters from Frank Pollard
16-18 Bolton Evening News, 1909-07-01; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; testimonial by Arthur Rowntree, in my possession
19 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
20 Pollard (1953); diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; election address
21 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Diary of tour of Greece, Palestine, & Egypt, 1911; Ms; Mary S.W. Pollard: Italian Tour diary (Ms The Friend LXVI:765, 1926-08-27
22 Teachers' Registration Council registers
22 Mary S.W. Pollard cuttings album
24 Mary S.W. Pollard cuttings album; letters from Frank Pollard; Rochdale Observer, 1916-09-30; Labour Leader, 1917-12-13
25 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters from Frank Pollard, F.E. Pollard—bound pamphlets; my copy; Ruth Beck: Memoirs
26 letters from Frank Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; W. Pearson Thistlethwaite (1979) Yorkshire Quarterly Meeting, (1665–1966); The Friend LVI, LVII, LIX; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting, in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents 232–4; LSF Acc. 10978; Sunderland Daily Echo and Shipping Gazette, 1918-03-16; Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, 1917-10-15; RG 15/6012 RD121 SD3 ED21
27 Pollard (1953); Ruth Beck: Memoirs; Sidney Beck: Testimony to the Life of Ruth Beck of Ilkley Meeting, and the two earlier drafts; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; The Friend LX:276 1920-05-07, LX:525, 526, LXVI:74–5 1926-01-22, LXVIII:258 1928-03-30, 109.14:277-8 1951-04-06; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters & journals possessed by Jonathan Dale; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents:232–4, LSF Acc. 10978; The Times 1920-10-11, 1934-05-24; John A. Dell (May 1953), 'Francis E. Pollard', Bootham 25.1:9-10
28 The Friend LX:732–3 1920-11-19, LXI:330 1921-05-27, LXI:355–6 1921-06-03, LXII:3–4 1922-01-06, LXII:17–9 1922-01-13, LXII:53–5 1922-01-27, LXII:381 1922-06-02, 90:425, 1932-05-20; letter to Benjamin Beck from Bootham School Archivist.; letters from Frank Pollard; Thistlethwaite (1979); diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; UK, Outward Passenger Lists
29 interview with Sidney Beck, begun Easter 1986; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; Martin Ceadel: Semi-Detached Idealists: The British Peace Movement and International Relations, 1854–1945: 249; www.ellisisland.org, accessed 2007-06-19
30 testimonial by John W. Graham, in my possession; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
31 Diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
32 Pollard (1953); interview with Sidney Beck, begun Easter 1986; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; letters to me from Sidney & Ruth Beck; letter to me from Bootham School Archivist; letters from Frank Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting, in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents 232–4; The Friend 90:425, 1932-05-20; Frank Pollard's cash book
33 Pollard (1953); The Friend 109:307; according to The Friend 90:425, 1932-05-20, he became a member of the Friends' Education Committee just after the opening of the century.
34 The Friend LXIII:419 1923-06-01, 90:425, 1932-05-20, 109:307; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; letters from Frank Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Ms book on early life of Ruth Pollard (2 vols); diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
35 The Friend LXIII:20, 39, 60, 79, 104, 122, 196, 341, 801–2, LXV:65–7 1925-01-23, 317–8, 1925-04-17; letters from Frank Pollard; Ruth Pollard: diary; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
36 letters from Frank Pollard; The Friend LXVI:101–2 1926-02-05, LXVI:293–4 1926-04-09, LXVI:453 1926-05-21, LXVI:765, 789, 807, 829, 851 1926-08-27 to 1926-09-24, LXVI:967–8 1926-10-29, 109.14; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard
37 letters from Frank Pollard; The Friend LXVII:331–2 1927-04-22, LXVII:486, 531, 555, 568, 594, 620 1927-05-27 to 1927-07-01, LXVII:804, 822, 842, 861 1927-09-02 to 1927-09-03; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Birmingham Daily Gazette, 1928-05-28
38 Pollard (1953); The Friend LXVIII:81–2 1928-02-03, LXVIII:253–4 1928-03-30, LXVIII:393–5 1928-05-11, LXVIII:481, 488, 492, 570 1928-06-22, 109.14, LXVIII:847, 867, 884, 1051, 1083, 1128 1928-09-21 to 1928-10-05 and 1928-11-23 to 1928-12-07, 109.14, 1953-03-06:206–7; letters from Frank Pollard; The Friend 1924–50
39 letters from Frank Pollard; Ruth Pollard: diary; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend LXIX:486 & 525, 1929-05-31 and 1929-06-07
40 letters from Frank Pollard; Ruth Pollard: diary; letter to me from Bootham School Archivist; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend LXX:45–7 1930-01-17, LXX:477, 485, 525 1930-05-30 & 1930-06-06, LXX:982–4, 1008–9 1930-10-31 & 1930-11-07, 90:425 1932-05-20
41 Ruth Pollard: diary; letters from Frank Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; Diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend LXXI:488 & 502 1931-05-29, LXXI:793, 817, 834, 864 1931-08-28 to 1931-09-18, LXXI:893–4 1931-10-02, LXXI:1029 1931-11-06
42 Pollard (1953); The Friend 90:6 1921-01-01, 90:138 1932-02-12, 90:422–5 1932-05-20, 109.14; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Times; Leeds Mercury and Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer, 1932-05-19
43 Margaret Dale: 'Reminiscences'
44 The Friend 91:164 1933-02-24, 91:411 1933-05-22, 91:479 & 480 1933-06-02, 91:1088 1933-12-08, 91:1132 1933-12-15, 140:55–7 1982-01-15; The Scotsman, 1933-05-25
45 Frank Pollard's cash book
46 Berkshire Chronicle obituary; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; letters from Frank Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 92:494, 505 & 514 1934-06-01, 92:560 1934-06-15, 92:833 1934-09-14, 92:1039 1934-11-09, 92:1067 1934-11-16, 92:1171 1934-12-14; Nottingham Journal, 1934-07-06
47 letters from Frank Pollard; Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; Kelly's Directory; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 93:33 1935-01-11, 93:120 1935-02-08, 93:383–4 1935-05-03, 94:443 1935-05-17, 93:522 1935-05-31, 93:942 1935-10-18; BT phone books
48 Pollard (1953); Berkshire Chronicle obituary; Who's Who in Berkshire (London 1936); The Friend 94:226 1936-03-13
49 Friends' World Conference 1937.II. 'The Individual Christian and the State', Report of Commission II. Friends' World Conference Committee, Philadelphia; The Friend 109.14; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters from Frank Pollard; The Friend 95:237 1937-03-12, 95:451 1937-05-14, 95:496, 499 & 502 1937-05-28, 95:870–1, 879–80 1937-09-24; New York, Passenger Lists; Nottingham Journal, 1937-06-03
50 Frank Pollard's cash book
51 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting, in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents 232–4; Reading Mercury, 1939-07-01
52 Pollard (1953); The Friend 98:23 1940-01-12, 98:173–4 1940-03-22, 98:319 1940-05-31, 98:529 1940-09-13, 98:687 1940-12-13, 109.1; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letters from Frank Pollard; Ruth Pollard: diary; Frank and Mary Pollard visitors' books
53 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 96:414, 96: 1938-05-27, 96:602–3 1938-08-08, 96:932 1938-10-28, 96:1038 1938-11-25, 97:377–8 1939-05-12, 97:455, 465, 469, 470 1939-06-02, 97:607 1939-07-14, 97:754 1939-09-08, 97:1031 1939-12-22
54 Testimony of Reading meeting to F.E. Pollard; letter from Ernst C.E. Eberstadt, in my possession
55 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; Ruth Beck's Mass-Observation diary (D 4247); The Friend 99:133 1941-03-14, 99:181 1941-04-11, 99:335 1941-07-11, 99:383 1941-08-08, 100:369–71 1942-07-24, 100:492 1942-09-11, 100:706 1942-12-04, 101:187 1943-03-12, 101:458 1943-07-09
56 Frank Pollard's cash book
57 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 102:299 1944-05-12, 102:343 1944-06-02
58 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 103:155 1945-03-09, 103:233 1945-04-13, 103:329 1945-05-25, 103:762 1945-11-09
59 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 104:110 1946-02-08, 104:437 1946-05-31, 104:623 1946-08-02, 105:353 1947-05-09, 107:477–8 1949-06-10 (review), 109.14
60 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; The Friend 106:302 1948-04-09; Frank Pollard's cash book
61 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Pollard (1953), op. cit.; my own knowledge; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; interview with Sidney Beck, begun Easter 1986; information from Beatrice Pollard; letters from Margaret J. Dilks and Norah J. Braithwaite, 1951, in my possession; XII Book Club Minute Book, Reading Experience Database; Margaret Dale: 'Reminiscences'
62 Frank Pollard's cash book; The Friend 108:918 1950-12-01; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting, in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents 232–4
63 letter from Frank Pollard to Caro Hardie, in my possession; letter from C.W.W. Greenidge, in my possession
64 death certificate; index to wills and administrations, Principal Registry of the Family Division; Pollard (1953); DQB; Berkshire Chronicle obituary; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; interview with Sidney Beck, begun Easter 1986; information from Sidney Beck; The Friend 109:265 1951-03-30
65 copy of minute, in my possession
66 attachment to letter from Eric S. Tucker to Mary S.W. Pollard, 1951-04-09, in my possession
67 The Friend 109.14; Testimony of Reading meeting to F.E. Pollard; testimony from Reading Monthly Meeting, in London Yearly Meeting 1951, Reports and Documents 232–4
68 documents now at West Sussex RO; DQB; marriage certificate
William Pollard was born on the 10th June 1828 in Horsham, Sussex. In 1832 he was named among the children in the will of his father, James Pollard. In 1841 he was a pupil at the Friends' School, Park Lane, Croydon.1
By September 1843 he had become a member of the teaching staff at the Friends' School in Croydon, but was already discontented and contemplating quitting. The superintendent of Croydon School felt that, if he applied himself to his work, there was a good chance of his becoming an efficient and valuable teacher. His father certainly believed he had more prospects in teaching than on the farm "as thee know thee are not so able to Drive Plough or fill a Dung Cart as thee are to teach a School wherein thee will be gaining some real wisdom thyself," as he wrote to William on the 9th September that year. James also made it clear to him that there were no other options available that he could afford. The consequence was that William bowed to this pressure, and remained at Croydon.2
On the 22nd November 1843 he was apprenticed as a junior teacher at the Friends' School in Croydon, the apprenticeship expiring on his 21st birthday. While at Croydon William formed a strong attachment to the philanthropist Peter Bedford, whom in many respects he came to regard as his mentor. In 1849, for additional teacher training, he went on to the Flounders Institute at Ackworth, Yorkshire, which had only been founded one year previously. He was still a student there in 1851.3
All told, William Pollard spent 16 years of his life at Ackworth. When he became a master at the School in 1851, his salary was £60 p.a., which Peter Bedford didn't consider too high a salary after seven years serving at Croydon and the two years at the Flounders Institute. It is recorded of William as a teacher that he "excelled in the art of reading. His voice was round and clear, though not altogether free from intonation; but his style inspired his hearers with an increased interest in the subject-matter, and his turn to read aloud was always welcomed" (Joseph Spence Hodgson); the reference to 'intonation' probably has to do with the sing-song voice in which vocal ministry was traditionally offered. In 1852 he played an active part in setting up the Ackworth Literary and Scientific Society, and was keen to encourage independence and research amongst the children, seeing no value in a school society which was merely an extra class under the supervision of a master.4
While at Croydon he had met [K1] Lucy Binns of Bishopwearmouth, who was an apprentice there in the days of John Sharp. William Pollard's removal to Ackworth must have made it easier for the couple's relationship to develop, and they married on the 12th January 1854, at the Nile Street meeting-house in Sunderland. The couple had ten children: Mary Sophia (1854–1935), Lucy (1856–1939), Ellen (1857–1858), Bedford (1858–1945), Albert (1860–1902), William Henry (1862–1923), Eliza (1866–1938), Constance (1867–1871), Arthur Binns (1870–1949), and [I2] Francis Edward (1872–1951); the first six were born in Ackworth, the others in Reigate.5
Quaker marriage certificate for William Pollard and Lucy Binns (with apologies for the poor focus)
In 1861 his home was on the road leading to Carr Bridge, Low Ackworth, Ackworth; the household kept two servants, including a nursemaid.6
In the spring of 1862 he had a letter published in The Friend, advocating an Association for Promoting Religious Instruction among Friends. In the summer he participated in an Ackworth conference to consider Scripture-reading meetings. The following summer he took part in the revived Friends' Educational Society, of which he was named as a member of the General Committee of Management; he and two others were nominated to consider and report on the value of vacations, and the duties in parents in regard to their children during vacations; he presented a paper on the subject to the FES meeting at Ackworth in July 1864. Drawing on his experiences at Ackworth, he also participated in the 1863 annual meeting of the Friends' First-Day School Association. In May 1864 he spoke at Yearly Meeting, on school inspection. Between 1864 and 1866 he contributed Primitive Christianity Revived and Congregational Worship to the Old Banner series of Quaker tracts, of which he had been a co-promoter; the former received an adverse review in The British Friend in April 1864. In June 1865 he was present at a well-attended meeting, at Devonshire House, of the Central Committee of the Society of Friends for the Relief of the Emancipated Slaves of North America; he "strongly advised that friends should not omit calling for help on those in their own localities who were thought not to be favorable to the movement." In 1865 he wrote a Reading Book for his pupils; he later published Choice Readings and (1872) a Poetical Reader. The review in The British Friend in September 1865 concluded: "With all our partiality for Lindley Murray, we yet consider there was room for a new work of this kind, and we think it well supplied by our friend William Pollard." The Reading Book has been described as the pupils' "one outstanding link with culture", and became very generally used in Friends' schools. For Elfrida Vipont, 20th century historian of Ackworth school, "William Pollard was a man of taste and catholic reading, and his selection was arranged in a way which encouraged the children to explore further . . ."7
Apparently experimenting with new educational outlets, he placed the following advertisement in The British Friend in April 1866:
Evening Amusements. Now ready, price One Shilling. The new game of Proverbs, for Family Parties. Sent post free on receipt of 13 stamps, by William Pollard, Ackworth, Pontefract.8
William Pollard with his class at Ackworth
In 1866 he was obliged to give up teaching owing to declining health. He had been a good and enthusiastic teacher, and maintained a lifelong interest in education. It was in May of this year that he was first recorded as a minister, by Pontefract Monthly Meeting, held at Ackworth. In June, announcing (with his partners, John Rice and William Westlake) that the Old Banner pamphlet series was finishing, he also gave notice of their intent to produce a half-yearly serial volume, the Friends' Eclectic Review. He moved to Reigate in the spring of 1866, and later that year he was encouraged by his home Monthly Meeting (Dorking, Horsham and Guildford) to undertake religious service among the villagers of Ackworth. In March he was similarly encouraged in respect of the Sussex and Surrey Quarterly Meeting area; it was also part of his view to hold some meetings of a social character and for religious teaching, "as way may open." In fact he extended his net still further, holding meetings in Southampton in November 1867 and Reading in April 1868; at the latter "W.P. gave an interesting lecture on the agreement of the views and principles of the Society of Friends with primitive Christianity, which was apparently well received by those present, many of whom came by invitation."9
At this time, in apparent response to an advertisement in The Friend, he became agent to Francis Frith, the celebrated Reigate photographer. For the next seven years he placed all Frith's advertising and published Frith's catalogues. Frith himself had, it seems, no direct dealings with the purchasers of his photographs. Frith's most recent biography notes that "Francis Frith's business really began to expand after he took on William Pollard (1828–93) to help market his products in 1866." Pollard and Frith ceased to be business partners after 1873, but they remained close friends and regularly lectured together in the cause of peace.10
Early in 1867 he spent a fortnight in London, and attended Yearly Meeting, the first time for some years. By July that year he was referring to his health as "somewhat precarious". Between 1867 and 1890 he wrote some 18 articles for the Friends' Quarterly Examiner, mainly covering matters raised in Yearly Meeting and other aspects of current Quaker practice; a contribution from him appeared in the first volume of 1867 as the first of a series of 'Colloquial letters on various subjects'. On 18th February 1868 he visited Robert and Elizabeth Spence Watson at Mosscroft, Gateshead, four years before his youngest son was born, who later married their daughter. In March 1868, at Northampton meeting-house, he gave a lecture on 'Primitive Christianity and Quakerism.' In the spring of 1869 his monthly meeting liberated him for religious service within the Essex Quarterly Meeting area. The following spring he was similarly authorised for religious service in the Quarterly Meetings of Yorkshire, Lancashire & Cheshire, and Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire & Lincolnshire; for some of this work he was joined by his brother-in-law Henry Binns. He participated in London Yearly Meeting in June 1870.11
In February 1869, described as a gentleman, of Reigate, he was listed as a shareholder in the Metropolitan Bank Limited.11A
At the date of the 1871 census William Pollard was an agent for Frith's Photos, visiting with his wife's cousin George Binns at 12 Summerseat Place, Horton, Bradford, Yorkshire. In June that year his daughter Constance died at Reigate, aged 3½. In his last year in Reigate he was a resident in Holmesdale Road, Reigate, registered as a voter by virtue of possession of a freehold house in South Park. In September of 1872 he was still residing at Holmesdale Road, a photographic agent.12
The Pollards' home in Holmesdale Road, Reigate
William and Lucy Pollard and family, before 1872
At the beginning of June 1871 he spoke at London Yearly Meeting, urging Friends to be less passive in their testimony against war. In 1871 he published Considerations addressed to the Society of Friends on the Peace Question, and in 1872 (in which year he again participated in Yearly Meeting), having long taken a great interest in work for peace, he became secretary and lecturer to the Lancashire and Cheshire International Arbitration Association, a branch of the Peace Society, with an office at first at 6 St Ann's Square, later (by August 1876) just a stone's throw away, at 12 King Street. He held this post for most of the rest of his life. Around 1872 the family moved to Sale, Cheshire, (breaking the journey for a few days at Leamington), and William joined Ashton-on-Mersey (Sale) meeting. In 1874 and 1875 he participated in Yearly Meeting, in the latter year also speaking at the General School Conference Annual Meeting. Prompted by the 1875 Yearly Meeting, he secured the front page article in the August British Friend, on 'The Present Crisis in the Society of Friends as Portrayed in the Late Yearly Meeting.' 13
Around the time of his participation in the 1876 Yearly Meeting, Hardshaw East monthly meeting gave approval to Pollard's visits to a number of meetings in the Lancashire area—Liverpool, Rochdale, Lancaster, Burnley, &c.; associated with these visits were a number of public meetings on the Peace Question (the meeting in Manchester, on 21st December 1876, was on the Peace Question and the Duty of Christians in the Present Crisis). He attended a series of meetings in Leigh, Lancashire, in August that year, revisiting his paper on Primitive Christianity. In 1877 he spoke at London Yearly Meeting and the Yearly Meeting on Ministry and Oversight, and at the General School Conference he read a paper on the Friends' Hall, Owens College, Manchester. He participated in the London Yearly Meeting of 1878.14
During the Manchester period there appeared a small number of pamphlets or letters dealing with various aspects of the peace question. In 1878 William Pollard lived at 5 Holmefield, Sale, Manchester. That year was spent mostly in travelling in the ministry with Francis Frith, holding well-attended public peace meetings in many of the major towns of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Cheshire. Pollard and Frith were described as "working together very harmoniously and pleasantly." In the autumn of 1879 (in which he had again participated in Yearly Meeting), William Pollard went on a tour of meetings in Scotland, with William Edward Turner of Liverpool; they visited Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, St Andrews, Kilmarnock, Greenock and Paisley; at Aberdeen Pollard is said to have delivered an address on War and Christianity to a numerous and attentive audience. In November that year Frith and he continued their service to peace and the ministry by visiting meetings in Sheffield, Pontefract, Barnsley, Doncaster, Settle, Ackworth and Huddersfield. For several years after 1879 he continued the peace work, going on to propose both a code of international law and the establishment of a High Court of Nations. The printed list of members of Lancashire & Cheshire QM reveals that in 1880 the Pollard family resided at Homefield, Hope Road, Sale, which was convenient for Sale railway station and Ashton-on-Mersey meeting house, built in 1856 primarily to serve the new burial ground. Pollard was again an active participant in the 1880 and 1881 London Yearly Meeting and Ackworth General Meeting. In November 1880—travelling solo—he gave a number of lectures on peace in Cornwall, visiting Come-to-Good, Redruth, Mevagissey, St Austell, as well as Falmouth, where he spoke on 'War and Christianity' to a large meeting (7-800) of the Salvation Army; the same address was given at the Bowdon Congregational Church in Manchester, in January 1881. In 1881 the census enumerator found him at 9 Holmefield, where the household had one servant. In that year he was described as secretary to the Lancashire and Yorkshire International Arbitration Association and Peace Society; he was one of the organisers of a peace conference at Leeds.15
In May 1879 he attended a public meeting of the Aborigines' Protection Society, on 'South Africa and the War in Zululand' , in the Friends' meeting-house, Bishopsgate-street Without, London.16
During the final two decades of his life William Pollard consistently voiced strong aversion to the gradual drift towards Evangelicalism of the Society of Friends. He was an opponent of dogmatic teaching, and advocated the "wonderful education power" of free and open forums "in promoting enlightenment and useful thought". At the same time, he took the lead in resisting evangelical attempts to introduce Bible reading and congregational singing into meetings for worship.17
By 1882 the Pollard family had moved to Holmefield House, Clarendon Crescent, Eccles, which was close to the new meeting house in Half Edge Lane and, again, to Eccles railway station. William Pollard's business address is given as 12 King Street, Manchester, where he worked for the International Arbitration Association. That is some five minutes' walk from Mount Street, where Pollard would have attended monthly meeting (men only), held at 10 a.m. on the appropriate day. He spoke at London Yearly Meeting and the School Conference of 1882; and in September that year delivered addresses on War and Christianity in various towns of Kent, including Rochester, New Brompton, Canterbury, Margate, Dover, Folkestone and Ashford.18
In 1883 and 1884 he spoke at London Yearly Meeting and the School Conference. In the autumn of 1884 he gave a series of lectures on the Peace Question at Saffron Walden, Sudbury, Ipswich, Bury, Woodbridge, Sibford School, Reading, and Matlock Bank.19
In 1884 was published A Reasonable Faith, of which he was co-author with Francis Frith and William E. Turner, writing the chapter on The Bible and probably also that on The Sufferings of Christ, as well as revising all. The authors claimed that the book's message was intended for those who desired "a Faith at once Scriptural and reasonable" in contrast to an "emotional" evangelical creed which they viewed as a modern form of the Calvinistic theology against which the founders of Quakerism had initially rebelled. Viewed by John Greenleaf Whittier as "Quakerism pure and undefiled," it represents a crucial stage in the progress of British Quakerism towards the acceptance of liberal theology, which is marked by the Manchester Conference of 1895—"a watershed in the society's history." For the most recent historian of British Quakerism of the period, Thomas C. Kennedy,
In the post-Niebuhrian twentieth century, the views set out in A Reasonable Faith may leave an impression of 'feel-good' Christianity, promising much and demanding little. But among late-nineteenth century Quakers, the book's effect seems to have been electrifying, especially for young people. [ . . . ] More than fifty years after its publication, the book was still being credited with saving 'the reason and faith of that generation of Quaker youth' .
He continued his ministering work in 1886, at various locations in Lancashire, Cumberland and Durham, as well as participating in Yearly Meeting, as he had in 1885, and would continue to do every year until his death. In the autumn of 1886 he wrote to The British Friend, in his capacity as Secretary to the Peace Society and International Arbitration Association, listing the Society's available lectures; he himself was available to lecture on:
The Peace Society—its History and Aims; War and its Remedies; International Arbitration: How can it be Carried out; The War System and Bad Trade; The Story of William Penn; The Life and Teachings of Richard Cobden; "Force is No Remedy;" War and Christianity (Sunday Address); The Christian Doctrine about War and its Difficulties (Sunday Address); Can Christianity put down War? (Sunday Address); The Right and Wrong Way of Fighting (For Sunday Schools); Peace, War, and True Heroism, Illustrated by specially–prepared Pictures, shown by the Oxy-hydrogen light. (Special terms.)
In 1887 he published Old-Fashioned Quakerism; its Origin, Results and Future. Four Lectures; the first of these, 'Primitive Christianity', was reissued in 1890 in Religious Systems of the World. Old-Fashioned Quakerism constitutes a distillation of his mature thought.20
Though he was still living in Holmefield House in 1885, by the time of his daughter's marriage in May 1887, William Pollard, described as Agent to the Peace Society, was living at Oak Cottage, 537 Eccles New Road, Salford, Lancashire.
In the spring of 1888 he visited Ireland, holding meetings in Belfast, Lisburn, Lurgan, Bessbrook, Dublin, &c., as well as attending the Yearly Meeting of Ministers and Elders in Dublin; he read a paper on Peace at Dublin Yearly Meeting, "which was listened to with intense interest, and which many felt treated the subject more exhaustively then they had ever heard before." He addressed the School Conference that year, making reference to young men "whom he had come across in America"—the only suggestion found, that he may have visited that country. In October 1890 William Pollard and W.E. Turner visited meetings in Devon and Cornwall, Pollard also lecturing for the Peace Society in Exeter, Liskeard, St Austell and Plymouth.
In April 1888 he purchased 50 £10 shares in his son-in-law's new company, the Universal Digestive Tea Company.21
By 1891 he had moved to Drayton Lodge, Clarendon Road, Eccles, although he was absent on census night; as agent and lecturer for the Peace Society he was visiting Alexander Eddington, grocer, at 20 Unthanks Road, Heigham, Norfolk.22
During his period in Manchester he wrote articles for the Manchester Examiner, and was a frequent contributor to Christian World. In 1890 he contributed a powerful plea for Irish Home Rule to the Friends' Quarterly Examiner; this was revised and reprinted in the same year as The Irish Home Rule Question: A Survey from the Quaker Standpoint.23
In August 1891 Pollard and Turner visited meetings in Scotland, including visits to Glasgow and Edinburgh, where they attended the Two Months' Meeting. In the winter of 1891–2 he resigned as Lecturer to the Peace Society on medical advice, having a weak heart. His retirement was noted with regret in The Friend and The British Friend; the latter, noting his general service in opposing the cruelty and wastefulness of war, mentioned that he had also "specially pressed practical proposals for Arbitration, and a just and conciliatory Foreign Policy in lieu of War, on the public generally." The Peace Society organized a subscription fund to mark his retirement, and a presentation was made on the 27th June 1893 at the Reform Club in King Street, Manchester. In January 1893 he became co-editor of The British Friend, with W.E. Turner (the proprietor).24
In August 1893 The British Friend made it clear that Pollard was henceforth to have principal editorial responsibility, taking charge of all submitted letters, manuscripts and reviews, while Turner would deal with subscriptions, advertising and notices. But in the same month his health began to fail and he faced the fact that he was suffering from an incurable illness. He attended meeting for worship as long as he was able, often under great physical distress. During his last illness his mind often wandered. In a codicil to his will dated September 1893 he was described as a Gentleman, of Drayton Lodge Eccles near Manchester.25
William Pollard was short in stature. He had a lively sense of humour; and he took great delight in his children's hymn-singing.26
He was probably a more than usually active recorded minister in the life of Manchester PM at a crucial time in that large meeting's history. He was an assiduous participant in and commentator on Yearly Meeting from year to year as well as throwing himself into the life of Friends in the diverse regions where he resided at different stages of his mortal pilgrimage, also visiting many meetings in England and Ireland; his gift in the ministry was instrumental in fostering the Christian life among the younger members of Manchester meeting. He was an able exponent of the fundamental principles of Quakerism in its quietist phase. No-one could listen to his voice in meetings for worship without being struck by his frequent use of the expression "The restoring love of God," or the love of Christ and his restoring power; the Testimony to his life records that "It was manifest that our late dear friend was one of those who are called to bear the burden of original thinking. This, to his strong and serious nature, was part of his work and service in the Church." For one recent historian (Roger C. Wilson, writing in 1990), from the early 1860s until his death in 1893 it was William Pollard "more than any other single Friend who sustained a sense of direction among the diffuse activists who were looking for a way out of the theological dead-end in which the Society was floundering."27 More recently, in 2004, Thomas C. Kennedy described him as "both a precursor and a participant" in the liberal Quaker Renaissance.28
After two seizures of paralysis, on two Sundays a fortnight apart, he passed quietly into lethargy and death; this occurred on Tuesday the 26th September 1893, at his home, Drayton Lodge, Clarendon Road, Eccles; his death certificate recorded that he died after 15 days cerebral haemorrhage, 15 days paralysis, and 20 hours coma.
Though he had been in failing health for over a year, neither his immediate family nor his intimate friends had anticipated so early and sudden a close. According to The British Friend,
William Pollard attended Manchester Meeting on First-day morning, the 10th of Ninth Month, and, though manifesting some physical weakness, he spoke in ministry with unusual impressiveness. In the afternoon, a paralytic seizure deprived him of the use of his right side, but left his mind only slightly impaired. Considerable restlessness ensued, and other complications existing, much anxiety was felt by his family and friends. Another seizure supervened on First-day, the 24th, which resulted in a state of coma, and in quiet unconsciousness the spark of life flickered to its close on the morning of the 26th.
He was buried at 3:15 pm on the 19th, at the Friends' burial ground, Ashton-on-Mersey, Manchester, in the presence of his family and a large number of Friends. W.E. Turner wrote in The British Friend that
Under many misrepresentations and sometimes unjust imputations cast upon his large hearted and Catholic attitude of mind, William Pollard cherished a patient and charitable spirit. He believed there was room in the Shepherd's flock for much diversity in its unity, and was only intolerant of the spirit which seemed ready to close the door against any whose interpretation of Christian belief differed from popularly accepted statements of them.
And in the same issue J.W. Graham—noting Pollard's role in A Reasonable Faith—wrote that "The Society has lost an original thinker and a man of independent mind; and we his intimates have lost a light of our social circle, one who talked well and wittily, and who keenly enjoyed life, and was never so happy as among its domesticities."29
His will was proved at Manchester on the 14th December 1893 by Albert Pollard and John Collinson; his estate was valued at £6471.2s.3d. (£387,608 at 2005 values).30
An article in The British Friend in 1894, on 'William Pollard's Books' , focussed on what the author considered his three main works: A Reasonable Faith, Old-fashioned Quakerism, and Plain Truths for Plain People, by 'A Friend.' Pollard's authorship of the latter seems otherwise to have been overlooked, by contemporaries as well as historians.31
William Pollard was the seventh child and second son of [I4] James and [J1] Susanna Pollard.32
1 TNA: RG 6/714, /1127; Dictionary of Quaker Biography (Friends' House Library, typescript); father's will; TNA: HO 107/1078/9 f51 p12
2 David M. Blamires: 'Towards a Biography of William Pollard'; Journal of the Friends' Historical Society, Vol. 55 Nos. 3 & 4, pp.112-123
3 Dictionary of Quaker Biography; indenture, now at West Sussex RO; Blamires, op. cit.; Blamires (1984); HO 107/2331 f49 p24
4 Blamires, op. cit.; DQB; Elfrida Vipont (1959) Ackworth School from its foundation in 1779 to the introduction of co-education in 1946. London: 90:1
5 Blamires, op. cit.; marriage certificate; Ms notes on family of William & Lucy Pollard, by a son (probably Wilfrid) of Sophie and Joseph Sparkes—photocopy in my possession; genealogical notes by Sidney Beck; Bedford Pollard (1937) Quaker Reminiscences, London: Headley Brothers; entry in digests of Society of Friends; DQB; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', Ms book now at West Sussex Record Office; letters of Mary Pollard; genealogical notes by Sidney Beck; Essex Record Office D/Q 49/I2/a1; The Friend 1862-12-01 p. 309; diary letter from H.B. Smith, quoted by Bedford Pollard in The Friend 90:176–7 1932-02-26; Bedford Pollard (1937) Quaker Reminiscences, London: Headley Brothers
6 RG 9/3440 f25 p17
7 Dictionary of National Biography; Vipont (1959) 104-5; The Friend N.S. 1.7:92 1861-07-01, 1862-08-01, 1863-08-01 p. 183, 1864-01-01, 1864-06-20, 1864-08-01, 1865-07-01, XXXIII:644–5; The British Friend 1863-08-01 pp. 193-4, 1864-01-01, 1864-08-01, 1865-09-01
8 The British Friend XXV.4:100
9 DQB; Surrey Record Centre 6189 Box 11; The Friend VI.66:133, 67:151, VII.4:97, 11:277, VIII.5:140; The British Friend XXV.4:88, 7:171, 11:272, XXVI.7:186-7; Bedford Pollard (1937)
10 DQB; DNB; Blamires, op. cit.; Michael Wigg: 'Francis Frith: Quaker Connections'; Michael Wigg: The Universal and Uniform: the evolution of Francis Frith's business 1860–1873, Unpublished Postgraduate Diploma dissertation, the London Institute, 1995; Julia Skinner (2022) A Grand Spell of Sunshine. The Life and Legacy of Francis Frith. Salisbury: The Francis Frith Collection: 194
11 Friends' Quarterly Examiner I:304, 442–7; Blamires, op. cit.; Michael Wigg: 'Francis Frith: Quaker Connections'; The Friend NS IX.100:89, X.Apr:93, X.May:116, X.June:132, X.Sept:227; The British Friend XXVIII.Apr:89, XXVIII.May:114-5, XXVIII.July:176, XXVIII.Sept:228, XXVIII.Oct:252: 4; Mosscroft visitors' book; Northampton Mercury, 1868-03-21
11A Kentish Independent, 1869-02-20
12 RG 10/4469 f79 p30; electoral register; son's birth certificate; The Friend NS XI.July:184
13 Blamires (1984); letters & journals possessed by Jonathan Dale; DNB; DQB; Eccles and Patricroft Journal 6 Oct 1893; William Pollard (1880) 'The Peace-at-any-Price Party'; Blamires, op. cit.; documents now at West Sussex RO; The Friend NS XI.June:131, XIII.June:143, XIII.July:182, XIV.June:114, 126, XV.June:154, 165, 166, July:185; The British Friend XXIX.June:128-38, XXX.June:135, 138, 143, 145, XXXI.June:132, XXXI.Nov:279-303, XXXII.June:145, XXXIII.June:139, 163, Aug:193–6; Bedford Pollard: Quaker Reminiscences, 1937, London: Headley Brothers
14 The Friend NS XVI.June:147, July:193, Oct>259–60, 272, XVII.June:157, XVIII.June:125, 131 The British Friend XXXIV.June:153, 155, July:196–7, 202–1, XXXV.June:158, XXXVI.June:126, 132; The Guardian 1876-12-21
15 Blamires, op. cit.; Post Office Directory; Slater's Directory of Manchester; TNA: RG 11/3506 f107 p9; Blamires (1984), op. cit.; Wigg 1995: 13; a letter from Mabel to Robert Spence Watson, now at Tyne & Wear Archives Service, refers to Pollard and Frith as visiting ministers at York meeting in 1879; The Friend NS XVIII.Sept:246, XIX.June:158, XX.Jan:3–5, June:138, 145, 157, July:24, Oct Ads:3, Dec:318, XXI.Apr:89, June:139, 145, 156–7, July:207–8, Aug:332; The British Friend XXXVI.Aug:212, Oct:260, XXXVII.Jan:12–3, June:139, Sept:233, XXXVIII.Jan:5–7, 12, June:142–3, July:185–6, Dec:295, XXXIX Jan Ads:9, Mar:68, Oct:263; The Guardian 1881-01-08; Lancaster Gazette, 1879-08-09
16 The Aborigines' Friend, 1879-06-01, 5:121
17 Thomas C. Kennedy (2001) British Quakerism 1860–1920. The Transformation of a Religious Community: 294
18 Blamires, op. cit. The Friend XXII Jan Ads:8, June:128, 145, 150, 155, July:170–1, Sept:224–5, Oxt:264–5, Nov:277–8; The British Friend XL.June:129, 144, Oct:264–6
19 The Friend XXIII.Jan:21, Mar:56–8, May:103–4, June:137, 140, 142, 146, XXIV.June:147–8, Nov:294; The British Friend XLI.Feb:37, June:126, 132, 135, 141, 144, XLII.June:129, Oct:244, Nov:264, Dec:288.
20 letters from Frank Pollard; Robert S.W. Pollard: 'Memoir of Francis E. Pollard', in F.E. Pollard (1953) War and Human Values, 2nd edn 1953; DQB; intro. to Blamires (1984), op. cit.; DNB; Blamires, op. cit.; Kennedy (2001) ; The Friend XXV Dec: Ads 8, XXVI Apr:100, June:144, Nov: 297, XXVII Jan:22, June:137, 152, June: Ads 11, July: Ads 6, Aug: 203–4, Sept:239–40, XXVIII Jan:24, May:114, June:143, 149, XXIX June:156, XXX June:148–9, XXXI June:141–2, XXXII:345, 346, 350, 372, XXXIII:359, LXVII:703 1927-07-29; The British Friend XLIII Dec: Ads 6, XLIV Apr:80, Nov:271–2, XLV Apr: Ads 9, Aug: 207–8, XLVI Feb:43, Apr: 90, June:132, XLIX:132, 143, NS I:5, 6, 10, 131, II:171
21 Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser, 1888-04-02; AOSA Annual Report 31, 1912
22 letter from Lord Rosebery to William Pollard; will; RG 12/1529 f51 p2. 1889 Slater's Directory of Manchester gives house number as 573; 573 Eccles New Road appears as uninhabited, in the 1891 census, so on the assumption that the Pollards may recently have moved out, this may be the correct number; The Friend XXVIII Jan:24, XXVIII May:114, XXVIII June:132, 134–5, 143, 149, 185, XXIX June:156, XXX Dec:228–9; The British Friend XLVI May:117, June:124, XLVII June:157, 176–6, 178, June: Ads 8
23 Blamires (1984), op. cit. 910; DNB; Eccles and Patricroft Journal 6 Oct 1893; Michael Wigg: 'Francis Frith: Quaker Connections'
24 The British Friend XLIX Sept: 224, NS I Nov:271, II Jan:1; Annual Monitor 1894; DNB; Eccles and Patricroft Journal 6 Oct 1893; Blamires, op. cit. Eccles and Patricroft Journal says editor & part-proprietor, DNB says co-editor.
25 The British Friend II Aug:239; DQB; Annual Monitor 1894; will codicil
26 Isaac Henry Wallis (1924) Frederick Andrews of Ackworth. London: Longmans, Green & Co.; Annual Monitor 1894
27 Blamires, op. cit.; Blamires (1984); DNB; DQB; Elizabeth Spence Watson: 'Family Chronicles/Home Records', and supplement
28 Thomas C. Kennedy (Spring 2004) 'Early Friends and the Renewal of British Quakerism, 1890–1920', Quaker History 93.1: 80–95
29 Proceedings of Yearly Meeting 1894; Blamires, op. cit.; death certificate; Eccles and Patricroft Journal 29 Sept 1893; DQB; The Friend XXXIII:644–5, 656; The British Friend II Oct:294, Nov: 297–9
30 index to wills and administrations, Principal Registry of the Family Division
31 Evelyn Noble Armitage, in The British Friend III Apr:106–8
32 RG 6/714, /715, /1127, /1134; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', at West Sussex RO
James Pollard was born in Horsham on the 19th June 1789. From 1798 to 1801 he attended Ackworth School, his normal residence being at Horsham. At admission his reading and spelling were found to be "but poorly".1
In 1808 he attended Monthly Meeting for the first time, at Ifield, Sussex. In June of the following year—by now working as an assistant in his father's drapery—he was drawn for service in the local militia, upon which he was fined £10, then imprisoned in Horsham Gaol for 14 days, for refusal to serve; he was one of only two Friends in Surrey and Sussex penalised this way, at this time. He was treated kindly in gaol, being given a bedroom to himself, with the debtors. In 1811 he was for the first time subject to distraint, for non-payment of church rates; he appears to have begun in business in his own right by this date.1A
On the 27th April 1813 he married [J1] Susanna Bourn, by licence from the Archdeaconry of Lewes, at St Nicholas parish church, Brighton, Sussex. He was described as an ironmonger, of Horsham. The marriage caused consternation among local Friends, as Susanna was not herself a Quaker, and the proceedings seemed to have progressed rather rapidly, before Friends had time to intercede. Their children were: Ann (1816–1818), Eliza (1818–1859), Richard (1819–1854), Emma (1822–1826), Martha (1823–1859), Mary (1826–1851), [I3] William (1828–1893), Robert (1831–1856), and David (1834–1838), all births being registered by Surrey & Sussex quarterly meeting.2
In 1814 James was summoned for the local militia once more, again fined £10, but this time distrained rather than imprisoned. From 1816 to 1840 he was an ironmonger in Horsham; he is so described in his own will of February 1832 and the will of his father Samuel Pollard in September 1840. From 1818 to 1834 he is described as an "Ironmonger &c.", and around 1830 he was in business as a "draper and tinman", with a shop in West Street, Horsham. In this period he was frequently subject to distraint, the records of sufferings recording the taking of sundry items of ironmongery: tea kettles, coal scuttles, knives and forks etc. He had been left the shop by his aunt Hannah Pollard in 1821; he and his father had acted as executors of her will.3
In July 1829 Horsham overseers informed the meeting that James Pollard had been "guilty of a criminal connection with a young woman who lived with him as a servant"; he admitted his guilt, and when the meeting was informed, in September, that the young woman was in fact pregnant James was disowned.4
James Pollard made his will on 29 February 1832, as follows:5
I James Pollard of Horsham in the County of Sussex Ironmonger declare this to be my Will I give and devise All my real estate whatsoever unto my brother William Pollard of Great Surrey Street Blackfriars Road Surgeon and my brother in law Richard Moase of Lindfield in the County of Sussex Farmer their executors and administrators Upon trust to sell the same at such time or times by Public Auction or Private Contract as they may think proper with the consent of my Wife in her lifetime and afterwards at their discretion for the most money that can be obtained for the same And I direct that the receipt or receipts of my said Trustees or the survivor of them or the executors or administrators of such survivor shall be a sufficient discharge or discharges for the purchase money agreed to be paid for my real estate or any part thereof and that the purchaser or purchasers thereof shall not be liable to answer for the misapplication or nonapplication there And I give and bequeath the money thereby arising with the rents issues and profits of my real estate until the same shall be void as aforesaid And all the rest residue and remainder of my estate and effects whatsoever (after payment of my debts funeral and testamentary expenses) unto my Wife Susannah Pollard and my children Eliza Pollard Richard Pollard Martha Pollard Mary Pollard William Pollard and Robert Pollard and any future born children or child or of which my said wife may be encient at the time of my decease to be equally divided between them share and share alike the legacy to my Wife to be in lieu and bar of dower and thirds and the shares of my said children to be vested interests and to be paid to them as they respectively attain the age of twenty one years and the interest and dividends thereof or so much as shall be necessary to be applied in the meantime for their maintenance and education And I direct my Trustees or the survivor of them or the executors or administrators of such survivor to invest the shares of my children and any surplus which may accrue during their minority on mortgage upon real estate or to place the same in the Government Stocks or Funds and to change or vary the same from time to time with the consent of my said Wife during her life and after her decease at their own discretion and I empower my Trustees to apply money out of the shares of my children respectively for the apprenticeship or otherwise for their benefit And I declare that my said Trustees shall not be answerable for any more money than they shall actually receive nor for any losses which may happen except through their wilful neglect or default nor the [illeg. word] for the other of them and that they may retain all necessary expences which they may be put to in executing the trusts of this Will and I appoint the said William Pollard and Richard Moase Executors thereof and revoke all former Wills In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this twenty ninth day of February One thousand eight hundred and thirty two—James Pollard—Signed Sealed Published and Declared by the said James Pollard the Testator as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other—B. Henning—G. Stedman—W. Stedman.
He voted for the sitting MP, Robert Hurst, in the parliamentary election of 1835.6
In 1839, after 10 years' exclusion, James applied for readmission to the Society of Friends. He was found to be sincerely repentant, and his application was accepted. Probably he had never stopped attending meeting for worship, and he quickly resumed his position with local Friends, attending Monthly Meetings fairly regularly during the early 1840s, and indeed Quarterly Meeting in 1842.7
By 1841 he had become a farmer, of Park Farm, Horsham, Sussex, though still also with a house in West Street, Horsham; with James and Susanna were her sister and brother-in-law, a nephew and niece of Susanna's, and a 19-year old girl of uncertain relationship. At the end of 1843, with his sister Mary Ann Hayllar, he was co-executor of his father's will. His change of profession made him even more vulnerable to distraint, because of course he was also expected to pay tithes. From 1842 he suffered a number of seizures of sacks of wheat and oats, and even cows.8
Though he clearly found letter-writing something of a task, he shows himself in surviving letters to have been a caring and affectionate father. He clearly possessed a fair number of books—some of his remarks lead one to suppose that they were serious, probably religious, works. He was conservative in the matter of the Quaker testimony on plainness of speech, behaviour and dress, as might be expected for a Quaker of his generation, in the period prior to the 1860 Yearly Meeting which withdrew the query on plainness.9
On 20 January 1849, at Horsham Petty Sessions, two labourers were charged with using a wire to catch game on Greyland's Farm:
Mr James Pollard, farmer, said he had commissioned Thornton to set wires on his farm for rabbits, and gave him the wire for that purpose. Thornton made up the wire himself. He believed the wire was not set on Mr Fitzgerald's ground at all.
It was found that it had been on Fitzgerald's property, and each defendant was fined £1 10s., including costs.10
He remained a farmer to his death, which occurred on the 7th January 1851, on a visit to his daughter Eliza at Reigate, Surrey. His death was caused by natural disease of the heart, and happened "suddenly and instantly". There was a coroner's inquest, at the Rose and Crown in Reigate, a surgeon testifying that though he had applied stimulants and bled him it had been to no avail, and the jury returning a verdict of Natural death. His body was interred in the Friends' burial ground at Reigate on the 12th January. His will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury on the 1st August; his effects were sworn under £1500, the final valuation being given as £460.18.5d. (£26,978 at 2005 values). In August 1856 his executors advertised for sale by auction his freehold shop, house, and premises in West Street, Horsham.11
James Pollard was the second child and eldest son of [I5] Samuel and [I32] Catherine Pollard.12
*** For an exhaustive treatment of the lives of James and Susanna Pollard, please see this pdf file (updated February 2023). ***
1 Quaker birth note now at West Sussex RO; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', Ms book now at West Sussex RO; TNA: RG 6/846, RG 6/609, RG 6/1644; West Yorks. Archive Service C678, Ackworth School archives, 11/3/1; Surrey Record Centre 6189 Box 6, East Sussex Record Office SOF 20/1
2 William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard'; Sussex Record Society Vol.XXVI,1919, p.341, Calendar of Sussex Marriage Licences; parish register; SRC 6189 Box 6; ESRO Par. 255/1/3/1 (XA30/12); Dictionary of Quaker Biography
3 RG 6/714, /715, /1134, /1135; Henry Burstow: Reminiscence of Horsham, ed. William Albery. 1916, reprinted 1975, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions; ESRO SOF 5/2 & 24/3; SRC 6189 Box 18; Horsham Museum Mss 808(5); will of Hannah Pollard, TNA: PROB 11/1646 Q.419; Pigot's Directory, 1832–4
4 SRC 6189 Box 9
5 will, TNA: PROB 11/2138
6 West Sussex Record Office MP 1507 Horsham electors' list
7 SRC 6189 Box 9, ESRO SOF 20/4
8 DQB; copy will, PROB 11/1988/135; Pigot's Directory to London & Provinces, 1832–4; Robson's Directory to London & Provinces, 1838; father's will; TNA: HO 107/1097 3 f28 p7; SRC 6189 Box 18; electoral register
9 David M. Blamires: 'Towards a Biography of William Pollard', Journal of the Friends' Historical Society, Vol.55 Nos. 3 & 4, pp.112-123
10 Brighton Gazette, 1849-01-25
11 William Pollard apprenticeship indenture, now at West Sussex RO; DQB; son's marriage certificate; widow's death certificate; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard'; death certificate; PROB 11/2138; IR26/1911—which says date of death was 8th Jan; SRC 6189/58; Sussex Agricultural Express; letter from Mary to Robert Pollard, now at West Sussex RO; West Sussex Gazette, 1856-08-28
12 RG 6/609, /714, /846, /1134, /1643, /1644; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', Ms book at West Sussex RO
Samuel Pollard was born on the 21st December 1760, in Horsham, Sussex.1
At a Court of Assistants held by the Carpenters' Company at Carpenters Hall on Tuesday the 4th July 1775 he was bound apprentice to Gabriel Gregory of Maze Pond, Southwark, carpenter, and also Citizen & Carpenter of London, for a consideration of 15 guineas.2
On the 20th July 1784, a carpenter in Clapham, Surrey, he married [I32] Catherine Hughesdon at Clapham's Holy Trinity church, by licence. At the birth of his daughter Grace in 1786 he was described as "A Member of Horslydown Monthly Meeting London now residing at Horsham and under Dealing at the request of the said Meeting for Marriage by the Priest to a Person not of our Society." Horsleydown Monthly Meeting were not finally satisfied until Samuel Pollard formally wrote to condemn his own offence of being married by a priest, in March 1788, the apology being accepted in May of that year.
Samuel and Catherine's children were: Mary (1785–1785), Grace (1786–1791), Samuel (1787–1851), [I4] James (1789–1851), Andrew (1790–1863), Thomas (1792–1848), William (1794–1878), Theophilus (1795–1872), Martha (1797–1879), John (1799–1837), Joseph (1801–1873), Frederic (1803–1844), Mary Ann (1805–1865), and Josiah (1807–1834); all but Mary are known to have been born in Horsham.3
By 1787 he had begun buying property in Horsham, and was in future to make at least part of his living as a landlord. That year he took on an 11-year-old girl apprentice, Ann Cooper.4
From the beginning of 1789 he began regularly attending Monthly Meeting, and from September 1789 was usually one of the meeting's representatives to Sussex and Surrey Quarterly Meeting. In 1796, and on a number of subsequent occasions, he also attended London Yearly Meeting.5
In 1791 he was a defendant in the Chancery suit of Hall con Pollard and others, a case deriving ultimately from his grandmother's earlier suit of 1718.6
In 1795 he was appointed as the local agent for Ackworth school, a position he retained for some 30-odd years.7
From 1795 to 1807 he is described as a shopkeeper. In 1807 he is more specifically stated to be a draper, freeholder of a house in West Street (almost directly opposite no. 49), rated at £20/5/-. By 1818 he is described as a yeoman, of Horsham.8
In 1797 he was distrained for tithes, 6 yards of cloth being taken; he was to suffer repeated further seizures from his drapery shop right through to 1821. The distraint was usually for non-payment of tithes or church rates, but in 1798 he was distrained under the Cavalry Act.9
In 1807 he voted twice, in Lewes and Horsham.10
In 1811 he was able to lend £100 towards the cost of constructing a new meeting house at Brighton; only two other individuals advanced as much. That year he acted as co-executor of the estate of his brother-in-law Joseph Cranstone. In February 1812 he briefly acted as clerk to Horsham Monthly Meeting.11
Around 1820 he apparently lived in a house called 'The Druids'; he paid for the first year of education of a neighbour's son, Henry Burstow. This was probably the property he had bought from the Duke of Norfolk in 1813 for £1500, then known as 'Popes'. In 1820 he apparently didn't vote, but he did so in 1826, 1830 and 1835.12
In 1817 he was correspondent in Horsham for the Society for the Promotion of Permanent and Universal Peace, to which he had subscribed a guinea—double the contribution of any of the other five Horsham subscribers.13
From 1816, when subject to distraint, it was frequently large quantities of hay that were seized, suggesting that by then he may also have been engaged in farming. This may be confirmed by the reference to a Samuel Pollard, farmer of Horsham, who witnessed the marriage of Joseph Cranstone, Samuel's nephew (additionally, his son Frederick, at his death in 1844, was described on his death certificate as a "farmer's son").14
On 21 March 1820, a notice of the dissolution of the partnership between S. Pollard and S. Pollard jun., Horsham, drapers, was published in the London Gazette. In 1821, with his son James, Samuel acted as executor of his sister Hannah's will.15
In 1823 he is listed in Pigot's Sussex Directory as a linen draper in Horsham, but in 1824 he sold his drapery business to a John Browne, for £200 plus the value of stock in trade. From 1832 to 1832, and again in 1839, Pigot's Directory lists him as an ironmonger and linen draper; possibly this reflects his ownership of the business carried on by his son.16
In 1832, 1834 and 1839 he voted for the borough of Horsham, as a resident of the Bishoprick, which is also referred to as Alfred Place. Around this time he employed an ostler named Waterman, who smuggled 2-gallon casks of spirits in buckets of hogwash he carried suspended from a yoke, as he walked round the town.17
In July 1832 Samuel Pollard was appointed an Elder. From then on he regularly attended Monthly and Quarterly Meetings of Ministers and Elders. In January 1826 he chaired a meeting of the inhabitants of Horsham, to protest against the imprisonment of Edward Mills, an "old and respectable Tradesman." In September 1833 he was present at a parish meeting in the King's Head in Horsham, "to consider upon the expediency of adopting the Plan pursued last Winter for providing Employment of the Poor." In 1837 he made a donation of £50 to the Friends' School in Croydon. In the 1837 election he voted Lennox and Surrey.18
In February 1839 he gave evidence at a Court for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors, at Horsham, in the case of William Feist, shoemaker. He sold Popes that year, to a Peter Du Cane, for £2020.19
As a yeoman of Horsham he made his will in 184020:
This is the last Will and Testament of me Samuel Pollard of Horsham in the County of Sussex yeoman that is to say I give to my son Samuel one hundred and fifty pounds and to my son Andrew one hundred pounds and to my son Thomas one hundred pounds and to my son Theophilus one shilling to be paid to them as soon as convenient after my decease I give and devise to my son James Pollard of Horsham Ironmonger and my son William Pollard of London Surgeon and my friend John Glaisyer of Brighthelmston Druggist and to their heirs executors and administrators and assigns in trust as soon as conveniently may be after my decease to sell my estates by public auction or private sale so that the most money may be had or obtained for the same videlicet my house and land with the appurtenances at Lindfield in the County of Sussex known as the Tiger Inn and alsy my leasehold premises with the appurtenances in the parish of Horsham now in the occupation of Meshack Seagrave and also my leasehold house and premises in High Street Kensington in the County of Middlesex let or lease to William Treadwell and for the more easily carrying this my will into effect I do hereby direct and appoint that the purchaser or purchasers of my said estates shall not be obliged or compelled either in law or equity to see to the application of the purchase money but the receipt or receipts of my said trustees shall be a good and sufficient discharge to such purchaser or purchasers respectively for the purchase money and which shall be paid and applied by my said trustees or the survivor of them his heirs executors or administrators in such manner as is hereinafter by my will directed and also all my bonds bills notes mortgages ready money and all the Rest and Residue of my estates and effects of what nature o kind soever, I hereby direct that the whole of my said real and personal estates of what kind or nature soever shall be converted into money and which together with the money arising from the sale of my real estates and the rents profits interest and dividends shall be equally divided amongst or between my sons James Pollard William Pollard Joseph Pollard and my daughter Mary Ann Hayllar and the children of my late sons John Pollard and Josiah Pollard who are to have what would have been their fathers share had they been living equally divided between them. I hereby direct my said trustees to pay over the Widows of my said sons John Pollard and Josiah Pollard the interest or dividends that may arise from such shares to be expended in the education and maintenance of their said children during the time their Mothers remain Widows but if they marry again my will is that my executors shall apply such interest or dividends for the benefit of those children until they attain the age of twenty one years respectively and in case any other of my said children should die either in my lifetime or before his her or their share or shares shall be payable and should leave lawful issue such issue shall have his her or their Fathers or Mothers share to be equally divided among them and paid to them as they respectively become of the age of twenty one years the interest or proceeds arising from such shares before such child or children shall have attained the said age of twenty one years to be applied towards their maintenance and education at the discretion of my executors and I direct that my said trustees or the survivor of them his executors or admtors shall not be accountable for any loss or losses that shall of may happen in the execution of the trusts hereby in them reposed not owing to their wilful neglect or default nor shall they my said trustees be accountable the one for the other or the acts or deeds of the other but each of them for his own acts and deeds only and I hereby direct that my executors be paid for the [illeg. word] and expenses they may have or be put to in the execution of this my will and whereas several of my sons have had and now have [memos?] or notes or bonds my will is and I do hereby direct that all such debts and interest thereon shall be charged to them respectively and deducted out of the respective shares of my said real and personal estates And I do hereby nominate constitute and appoint my said sons James Pollard and William Pollard and my aforesaid friend John Glaisyer Executors of this my last will and Testament and my will is that either of my executors shall have full liberty to purchase either of my estates in the same manner as if he or they were not herein appointed by me to that office and hereby revoking all former and other will or wills by me at any time heretofore made I declare this to be my last will and Testament contained in two sheets of Paper In Witness whereof I the said Samuel Pollard the testator have hereunto and to the preceding sheet hereof set my hand this ninth day of the ninth month commonly called September in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty /—/ Samuel Pollard /=/ Signed by the above named Samuel Pollard the testator as and for his last will and Testament in the presence of us who at his request and in his presence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto
Benjn Newes druggist Horsham /=/ Geo Albery Saddler Horsham
The will refers to "my house and land with the appurtenances at Lindfield in the county of Sussex known as the Tiger Inn and also my leasehold premises with the appurtenances in the parish of Horsham now in the occupation of Meshack Seagrave and also my leasehold house and premises in High Street Kensington in the county of Middlesex let or lease to William Treadwell." In fact he was to sell the Tiger Inn in April 1840.
In 1841 he was living in Bishopwick, Horsham, being of independent means; he was living with his (apparent) son, a house servant, and one other (probably also a servant).21
A gentleman, he died at the Bishoprick, N. Horsham, on Wednesday the 11th August 1841, from decay of nature. His body was interred in the Friends' burial ground at Horsham on the 26th August. His will was proved on the 21st September in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.22
Samuel Pollard was the sixth child, third son, of [I6] James and [I17] Mary Pollard.23
1 TNA: RG 6/1258
2 London Lives, ref. GLCCMC251010302
3 RG 6/609; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', Ms book now at West Sussex RO; marriage bond at London Metropolitan Archives DW/MP/124/020/a-b; Surrey Marriage Index; Surrey Record Centre 6189 Box 5; Dictionary of Quaker Biography (Friends' House Library, typescript); London Metropolitan Archives P95/TR11/109/001 (X078/020); The Friend; The British Friend; Annual Monitor
4 West Sussex Record Office QDE/2/1 (MF 637-9) and Par/106/31/3
5 SRC 6189 Boxes 6 & 9; East Sussex Record Office SOF 1/3, SOF 20/1-4; Library of the Religious Society of Friends List of Representatives to London Yearly Meeting 1780–1861
6 documents now at West Sussex RO
7 ESRO SOF 1/3
8 RG 6/846, RG 6/714, RG 6/1134, RG 6/698; Dictionary of Quaker Biography; letters from William Albery to Bedford Pollard, 1927, now at West Sussex RO
9 ESRO SOF 5/2, SRC 6189 Box 18
10 Poll book
11 ESRO SOF 20/2, SRC 6189 Box 6; catalogue entry for Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies, DE/Ce/F26; PROB 11/1528/331 copy will of Joseph Cranstone
12 letters from William Albery to Bedford Pollard, 1927, now at West Sussex RO; Henry Burstow (1916) Reminiscence of Horsham, ed. William Albery. reprinted 1975, Norwood, Pa.: Norwood Editions; WSRO Add. Mss 11007-10, WSRO Add. Ms 2655 & MP 1507 Horsham electors' lists
13 Annual Report of the society
14 ESRO SOF 5/2 & 24/1, SRC 6189 Box 18; TNA: RG 6/1157; son's death certificate
15 will of Hannah Pollard, Public Record Office PROB 11/1646 Q.419; The Times 22 Mar 1820
16 Horsham Museum Mss 808(2); Freath, S.G.H., I.A. Mason & P.M. Wilkinson (1995) A Catalogue of the Horsham Museum Mss. Chichester: West Sussex County Council; Letters from William Albery to Bedford Pollard, 1927, now at West Sussex RO; Pigot's Sussex Directory
17 letters from William Albery to Bedford Pollard, 1927, now at West Sussex RO; William Albery (1947) A Millennium of Facts in the History of Horsham and Sussex 947–1947. Horsham: 505
18 SRC 6189 Boxes 9 & 17; ESRO SOF 21/2; Essex Record Office D/Q 49/A1/a18; Brighton Patriot, 1936-01-26; Horsham Posters; poll book
19 WSRO Add. Mss 11012-5; Brighton Gazette, 1839-03-14
20 wife's death certificate; will, TNA: PROB 11/1951; Sussex Agricultural Express
21 TNA: HO 107/1097/1 f26 p4
22 death certificate; will; Sussex Advertiser, 1841-08-16; SRC 6189/168; Dictionary of Quaker Biography says date of death was 18th August.
23 documents now at West Sussex RO; RG 6/424, /1258
James Pollard was born around 1721 and was baptised at St Dunstan, Stepney, London, on 2nd November 1721.1
In November 1737 he was left £1070.10s in his mother's will; the money was held in Chancery until after his father's death.2
On the 2nd April 1738 it was stated that "James Pollard the son who is upwards of 17 yres of age is desirous to be put apprentice to Robert Wilson of Mark Lane Cornfactor for a term of 4 yres to commence from the 22nd day of March last & the sd Robert Wilson hath agreed to take him as such apprentise for the consñ of 200£ being the usual price on such occasion wch the sd petr James Pollard the father hath agreed unto conceiving it for the benefit of his said son." The Court investigated whether the price and Mr Wilson were acceptable, and when they proved to be so ordered on the 5th April that £200 South Sea stock be sold and the proceeds given to Wilson.3
He successfully completed his apprenticeship in 1742. On the 22nd January 1744/5 he was given £300 from Chancery, at his own disposal. On the 16th February 1745/6 he married [I17] Mary Hall, in Horsham, at which date he was described as a mealman of Ifield. They had eight children: Rebecca (1747–1819), Mary (1748–1817), Hannah (1752–1821), Joseph (1754–1836), James (1756–1832), [I5] Samuel (1760–1841), Martha (1762–1790), and Sarah (1764–1845); all were born in Horsham.4
Quaker marriage certificate for James Pollard and Mary Hall
On the 21st October 1747 he was given a further £370.10.0d for his own use—it was "required to complete the purchase of an estate contiguous to his farm and lands he now possesses." He was executor of his father's will in February 1748/9. On the 15th June 1749—three months after his father's death—he was given the residue of the Slater estate (see I12), £1257.9.3d in South Sea Annuities.5
In 1757 and 1768 he is described as a miller, of Horsham; in 1775 he was a shopkeeper there.6
He died on the 18th June 1783, in Horsham, and was buried there on the 24th. In 1781, and at his death, he was described as a shopkeeper of Horsham.7 A 1783 administration was recorded in the Consistory Court of Chichester.8
James Pollard was the eldest child of [I7] James and [I12] Rebecca Pollard.9
1 TNA: RG 6/847, RG 6/610; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; baptism register for St Dunstan, Stepney
2 mother's will; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
3 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
4 RG 6/26, /102, /424, /715, /1310; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; William Pollard: 'Some Descendants of James and Mary Pollard', Ms book now at West Sussex RO; entry in digests of Society of Friends; will quoted in gedcom from Mark & Glenys Hill, citing TNA: PROB 11/768 Image Ref. 79; National Burials Index; Annual Monitor
5 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
6 www.a2a.org.uk/search/documentxsl.asp?com=1&i=10&nbKey=1&stylesheet=xsl/A2A_com.xsl&keyword=james pollard&properties=0601, citing Lytton/445 & /449, WSRO; London Lives, ref. GLCCMC251010302
7 RG 6/847, RG 6/610; www.a2a.org.uk/search/documentxsl.asp?com=1&i=8&nbKey=2&stylesheet=xsl/A2A_com.xsl&keyword=james pollard&properties=0601, citing SOF/59/8, West Sussex RO
8 extracted Probate Record, admon now in the Winchester probate registry
9 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; entry in digests of Society of Friends; parish registers of St John Wapping, St Dunstan and All Saints Stepney, and St John the Baptist Croydon
James Pollard was born in Arundel, Sussex, on the 25th September 1688.1
On the 6th June 1713 a marriage licence for James Pollard and Rebecca Slaughter was issued by the Faculty Office; they were married the same day at Lamb's Chapel, Monkwell Street; he was described as being of St Dunstan's, Stepney. Some time before May 1716 he went to Plymouth with [I12] Rebecca Stoodley. On the 6th of that month he was said to be a labourer in Milbrook in the parish of Maycock (i.e. Maker, which adjoins Plymouth), Cornwall. By the 7th September 1717 he had left Millbrook, and was now of St John Wapping; he marked his name.2
On the 10th September 1717 he married [I12] Rebecca Stoodley (née Sla[ugh]ter), at the church of St Benet, Paul's Wharf, London; he was described as a bachelor, of St John Wapping, Middlesex. This presumably legitimised their marriage, Rebecca's 1713 marriage having been bigamous. Their children were: Slater (1718 – after 1749, b. Wapping), Rebecca (1719 – ?, b. Stepney), [I6] James (1721–1783, b. Stepney), John (1723–1723), Mary (1723–1725), Hester (1724/5 – after 1749), and Charity (1728 – after 1749); the four youngest were born in Croydon.3
From 1718 onwards he was involved in the Chancery suit Pollard con Slater, over Rebecca's uncle's estate. For a close look at the Chancery case, see The Pollards in Chancery, below.4
In 1718 and 1721 James was a ropemaker, of Wapping—living in 1718 in Gun Alley. The family moved to Croydon, in Surrey, before 1723. In May 1737 James was described as a gentleman, of Croydon; in the same month he is named in Rebecca's will. In November that year he inherited half of his wife's estate (£4070.10s)—though he was not permitted to break into the capital.5
On the 11th February 1748/9 he made his will6:
In the Name of God Amen
I James Pollard of Croydon in the County of Surrey Gentleman being weak and infirm in Body but of sound and disposing mind memory and understanding thanks be given to Almighty God for the same and considering the uncertainty of this Life do make and ordain this my last will and testament in manner and form following that is to say First and Principally I commend my soul into the Hands of Almighty God my Creator humbly hoping to obtain Mercy and Forgiveness of all my Sins in and through the Merits of Jesus Christ my blessed Saviour and Redeemer and my Body I comment to the Earth from whence it came decently to be buried at the discretion of my Executor hereafter named And as to my worldly Estate I give devise bequeath and dispose thereof as followeth And First my will and desire is and I do hereby order direct and appoint that all and every my Household Goods Furniture and Implements of Household Stuff whatsoever plate Rings Linnen and China Ware shall be equally divided into six parts and shares Five of which Six parts I give and bequeath unto my Five Children James Slaughter Hopkins Rebecca Pollard Hester Pollard and Charity Pollard equally between them share and share alike and the other Sixth part thereof I give and bequeath unto my daughter Elizabeth Wood in Trust for her two Children James Wood and Rebecca Wood equally to be divided between them share and share alike also my ill is that my Ready Money and the residue of my personal Estate shall go for and towards Payment of my just debts Funeral Expences and Probate of this my will Also I give and devise unto my said two Grand Children James Wood and Rebecca Wood and to their heirs and assigns for ever as Tenants in Common and not Joint Tenants All that Messuage or Tenement with the Yard Garden and Premises thereto belonging with their Appurtenances situate lying and being near my dwelling House in the Town of Croydon aforesaid and now in the Occupation of Thomas Parnham or his Assigns Also I give and devise unto my aforesaid Five Children James Pollard Slaughter Hopkins Robert Pollard Hester Pollard and Charity Pollard and to their Heirs and Assigns for ever as Tenants in Common and not as Joint Tenants All that Messuage or Tenement where I now dwell in Croydon aforesaid with the Stable Chaise House Yards Gardens Buildings and Premises with the Appurtenances whatsoever thereto belonging or in any wise appertaining subject nevertheless to and Chargeable with the Payment of ten Pounds a Piece unto my two Brothers John Pollard and Nathaniel Pollard and with the Payment of so much of my just Debts Funeral Expences and Probate of this my will as my Ready Money and residue of my personal Estate shall fall short of paying and discharging if it happens so to do And I make ordain constitute and appoint my said Son James Pollard full and sole Executor of this my last will and Testament hereby revoking and making void all former will or wills by me made and declaring this only to be my last will and testament In witness whereof I the said James Pollard the Testator have to this my last will and testament set my Hand and Seal the Eleventh Day of February in the year of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred and Forty eight: the mark and seal of James Pollard. Signed Sealed Published and declared by the said Testator for and as his last Will and Testament in the Presence of us who hereunto set our names as witnesses in his Presence. Mary Dungate. J. Sanders Thos Varnom — ——
He died on the 12th February 1748/9, and was buried at Sunbury, Middlesex, on the 19th. At the funeral, performed by James Glover, the hearse was pulled by six horses with ostrich-feather plumes; the funeral cost £32.0.5d. His will was proved at London, in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, on the 23rd February 1748/9.7
James Pollard was the third child and second son of [I8] James and [I9] Elizabeth Pollard.8
1 TNA: RG 6/1111
2 Extracted Faculty Office marriage licences; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; documents now at West Sussex RO; parish register, Lamb's Chapel; my own speculation for equation of Maycock and Maker
3 documents now at West Sussex RO; Croydon and Stepney parish registers; parish register of St John Wapping; gedcom from Mark & Glenys Hill
4 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
5 parish register; documents now at West Sussex RO; wife's will now at West Sussex RO; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; Stepney parish register
6 TNA: PROB 11/768 will register
7 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register; documents now at West Sussex RO; TNA: PROB 11/768 will register
8 RG 6/1111; PROB 11/768 will register
James Pollard, of Petworth, Sussex, married [I9] Elizabeth Lillington on the 6th March 1682/3, the marriage being registered by Lewes and Chichester monthly meeting. The couple had eleven children: Thomas (1683 – ?), Jane (1685 – ?), [I7] James (1688–1748/9), Elizabeth (1690/1–1711), John (1692 – after 1748), Josiah (1697 – ?), Isaac (1699/1700 – ?), Robard (1703–1711), Joseph (1704/5 – ?), Mary (1708–1711), and Nathaniel (? – ?)—all births bar Nathaniel's being registered by Lewes & Chichester monthly meeting.1
James and Elizabeth Pollard were among the witnesses at the marriages of Thomas Lillington and Jean Allbery, in Arundel, Sussex, on the 10th December 1685, and of Mary Bidle and John Deane, in Shipley, Sussex, on the 27th December 1688.2
He died on the 13th March 1714/5, and was buried in Horsham.3
1 TNA: RG 6/1111; TNA: PROB 11/768 will register. FamilySearch shows a James Pollard, son of Edward Pollard, baptised on the 5th February 1659, at Southwick, Sussex (which is only 23.8 miles from Petworth and 21.5 miles from Horsham); as well as a Richard Pollard bapt. at Southwick 1654-11-23. Edward Pollard, husbandman of Southwick, had a daughter Susannah, who married in a Quaker ceremony at Bull & Mouth meeting, near Aldersgate, London, on 1680-09-09 (RG 6/1437).
2-3 RG 6/1111, /1258
Elizabeth Lillington may have been baptised on the 29th May 1663, at Petworth, Sussex.1
She married [I8] James Pollard on the 6th March 1682/3, at Lewes & Chichester meeting, her residence being given as Petworth.2
The couple had eleven children: Thomas (1683 – ?), Jane (1685 – ?), [I7] James (1688–1748/9), Elizabeth (1690/1–1711), John (1692 – after 1748), Josiah (1697 – ?), Isaac (1699/1700 – ?), Robard (1703–1711), Joseph (1704/5 – ?), Mary (1708–1711), and Nathaniel (? – ?)—all births bar Nathaniel's being registered by Lewes & Chichester monthly meeting.3
Her death was recorded by Arundel monthly meeting on the 5th October 1711.4
Elizabeth Lillington was the daughter of [I10] Thomas and [I11] Jane Lillington.5
1 parish register. TNA: RG 6/1111 has the marriages of two women named Elizabeth Lillington, both of Petworth, both in 1683, and both apparently with parents named Thomas and Jane. The second Elizabeth Lillington marriage includes, among the witnesses, James and Elizabeth Pollard. It isn't clear which bride was the Elizabeth baptised there in 1663.
2–4 RG 6/1111
5 entry in digests of Society of Friends
Thomas Lillington married [I11] Jane ____.Their only known children were [I9] Elizabeth (1663–1711) and Thomas (? – after 1713).1
In 1689 a Thomas Lillington signed a declaration regarding Quaker places of worship, at the Quarter Sessions held at Arundel.2
In May 1705 he voted at Horsham, Sussex, in the election for knights of the shire, for Sir Henry Peachey and J. Morley Trevor.3
In 1716 he was one of the parties to the conveyance of land for Horsham Friends' meeting house and burial ground. He died on 3 February 1716/7, and was buried at Horsham.4
1 TNA: RG 6/1111; presumably before 29th May 1663—FamilySearch; entry in digests of Society of Friends;
2 William Albery: A Millennium of Facts in the History of Horsham and Sussex 947–1947. 1947, Horsham: 451
3 poll book
4 Register of trust property, Surrey Records Centre 6189 Box 18; TNA: RG 6/1258
Jane ____ married [I10] Thomas Lillington.1
Their only known children were [I9] Elizabeth (1663–1711) and Thomas (? – after 1713).2
She died at Arundel on 14 December 1692.3
1 presumably before 29th May 1663—FamilySearch; entry in digests of Society of Friends.
2 TNA: RG 6/1111, /1310; entry in digests of Society of Friends
3 RG 6/1111
Rebekah Slaughter was born on 12 February 1696, and baptised on 25 February at St Paul's, Shadwell, Middlesex.1
Of Wapping, Rebecca Slater first married Daniel Stoodley (or Stutely), on the 2nd October 1712, in a clandestine marriage at the Fleet Prison, London. They lived in John Taylor's lodging house in Love Lane, Wapping, Middlesex. They had a daughter, Elizabeth (cal 1712 – 1790).2
On the 6th June 1713 a marriage licence for [I7] James Pollard and Rebecca Slaughter was issued by the Faculty Office; they were married the same day at Lamb's Chapel, Monkwell Street; she was described as being of St Dunstan's, Stepney. The marriage was almost certainly bigamous. By May 1716, now described as James Pollard's wife, she had gone away to Plymouth with him—seven months before Stoodley died. Stoodley "gave her a very ill character"—however, surviving records suggest his was no better.3
In September 1717 she lived in the parish of St John, Wapping. Described now as a widow, she married James Pollard on the 10th September 1717, at St Benet's, Paul's Wharf, London. Their children were: Slater (1718 – after 1749, b. Wapping), Rebecca (1719 – ?, b. Stepney), [I6] James (1721–1783, b. Stepney), John (1723–1723), Mary (1723–1725), Hester (1724 – after 1749), and Charity (1728 – after 1749); the four youngest were born in Croydon.4
Rebecca was co-heir to the estate (around £15,000, or £1,271,250 at 2005 values) of her uncle Samuel Slater, who died intestate. Early in 1718 she made a Bill of Complaint to Chancery (now apparently lost), claiming that her brother Samuel Slater was withholding her share of the inheritance. She described herself and her husband as "being greatly in debt and neither her nor her husband having any other means of subsistence but the said moiety of her said uncle's estate." For a close look at the Chancery case, see The Pollards in Chancery, below.5
On the 1st December 1718 the Court of Chancery ordered that the Slater inheritance was to be sold and divided between the heirs; Rebecca's moiety was to be reinvested "in the purchase of lands or Publick Stocks or Government Funds", and held in Chancery, paying her the interest; it was invested in South Sea Company and Bank stock.6
Rebecca Pollard's will
She made her will on the 31st May 1737. On the 3rd June of that year it was reported that "the produce of the said moiety of the said estate vested in the Joint Stocks of S. Sea annuities standing in the name of the accountant genll of this court" amounted to £8142.4s.11d.7
She died on the 14th September 1737. "Mrs. Rebekah Pollard from Croydon" was buried in Sunbury, Middlesex, on the 20th. Her will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.8
Rebecca Slater was the daughter of [I13] John and [I16] Rebekah Slaughter.9
1 parish register of St Paul, Shadwell
2 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; Clandestine marriage and baptism registers, TNA: RG 7/20; Croydon burials register
3 Extracted Faculty Office marriage licences; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register, Lamb's Chapel
4 parish register; documents now at West Sussex RO; gedcom from Mark & Glenys Hill
5-6 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
7 will—now at West Sussex RO; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
8 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register; Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater says will proved in PCC, but no trace found there—the original will survives now at West Sussex RO.
9 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register of St Paul, Shadwell
[Note: surviving records are incomplete, so some details appear inconsistent. In particular I haven't succeeded in making sense of the sums of money involved.]
Samuel Slater, about whose estate the Chancery suit revolved, was "at his death and for a long time before agent under the government to the sick and wounded hospital at Plymouth." If he had a family of his own, none of them survived him. His brother John, an upholsterer of St John's parish, Wapping, predeceased him, so Samuel's heirs, he dying intestate, were John's two surviving children, Rebecca and Samuel Slater (though parish records suggest that at least one other brother, Turner Slater, was still alive).
Rebecca Slater married a mariner, Daniel Stoodley, on 2 October 1712, in a clandestine marriage in London. They lived in John Taylor's lodging house in Love Lane, Wapping. Stoodley made his will in 1712, leaving everything to his wife Rebecca.
Though the marriage resulted in a daughter, Elizabeth, it was short-lived. According to their landlord, Stoodley left Rebecca to go to sea, without taking leave of her, and owing rent. He had, however, before his last voyage, told a lodging-house keeper in Gravesend that Rebecca "was gone away with another man into the west of England". The master of the Sarah Galley, on which Stoodley made his last voyage, said that he tried to pass as a bachelor, but admitted to him when asked, that he was married "but sayed his wife was gone away to Plimouth and gave her a very ill character." Two other seamen on board the Sarah Galley agreed that Stoodley said that Rebecca had left him and was living with another man; they said that Stoodley was "a morose man, much given to drink and swearing."
Rebecca had in fact bigamously married James Pollard on 6 June 1713, at Lamb's Chapel, Monkwell Street.
On 6 May 1716 Rebecca is described as wife of James Pollard of Milbrook in the parish of Maycock, Cornwall, labourer. (As 'Maycock' parish doesn't exist, I presume this refers to Maker, which adjoins Plymouth.)
On 2 December 1716 Stoodley died, aged 26 or 27, on a chest in the forecastle of the Sarah Galley, returning from the West Indies; he was buried on the coast of Guyana.
On 22 January 1716/7 Samuel Slater senior died, possessed of £2000 Bank stock, £4000 South Sea stock, and other personal estate to the value of £15,000 upwards. This included a ⅛ share in a ship, the Happy Return, for which he had paid £250 in 1713. Hester Slater, wife of Samuel junior, took out letters of administration in Samuel's absence—he being in Leghorn, Italy, only returning about 9 May 1717.
On 7 September 1717 an indenture was signed by "Rebekah Stoodley alias Pollard of St John Wapping, Middlesex, widow, and James Pollard late of Millbrook [ . . . ] and now of St John Wapping", apparently giving James Pollard equal rights in Rebecca's inheritance. In the event of her death, a trust would be set up for her children. It is stated that "a marriage is shortly to be had and solemnized between" Rebecca and James Pollard. In fact they married just three days later, at St Benet's, Paul's Wharf, London.
Some time early in 1718 Rebecca made a bill of complaint to the court of Chancery, which bill is now apparently lost. She said that Samuel Slater junior had been withholding her share of the inheritance, and also, it seems, that Thomas Daniell and John Lambe, who were named to administer the trust, had been in some "manner of unlawfull combinatõn and confederacy" with him; Thomas Daniell is apparently at this time guardian of Elizabeth Stoodley (his wife Charity is Rebecca's aunt). Rebecca described herself and James Pollard as "being greatly in debt and neither her nor her husband having any other means of subsistence but the said moiety of her said uncle's estate". She even had to seek an order in Chancery for part of the inheritance to be paid to her so that she could pay her way through court. The family "have been forced to borrow money".
On 17 April 1718 Samuel and Hester Slater rejoined that they had not been paying Rebecca her share of the Slater inheritance because they didn't accept James Pollard as her husband, since there was no proof that Daniel Stoodley was dead. Depositions were subsequently sworn to this effect by shipmates of Stoodley. Samuel Slater said that the assets of the estate were £6396 3s. 2d. "computing the South Sea and Bank Stock only at par"; and that the ⅛ share in the Happy Return was not saleable for above £60, the ship having made several voyages since purchase, and deteriorated.
At the time of the Chancery suit Slater is said to have been about to go overseas, and to have been "arrested" (presumably this only means prevented from leaving the country pending the outcome). On 29 July 1718 he was found to possess £3533 6s. 8d. in South Sea stock, and £1000 in Bank stock, registered in the names of Cairnes, David and Clark.
On 1 December 1718 it was ordered in Chancery that the Slater inheritance be sold and divided between the heirs; Slater's share was 5545 guineas, given as a "Goldsmith's note"; Rebecca's moiety was to be reinvested "in ye purchase of lands or Public Stocks or Government Funds", and held in Chancery, paying her the interest.
The following two decades were uneventful. It's clear, however, that the Pollards prospered, for in a document of 5 May 1737 James is described as a "gentleman"; by this time they had moved to Croydon.
On 31 May 1737 Rebecca made her will; she gave the value of her estate as £7542 4s. 11d. This is £600 less than that stated in Chancery on 3 June that year, the difference being a gift to her daughter Elizabeth and her new husband James Wood. The whole estate was held in the form of annuities of the South Sea Company.
Rebecca Pollard died on 14 September 1737. On 18 November Chancery acted in accordance with her will; she had left half her estate to her husband £4070 10s., £1070 10s. to James junior, their son, and £600 to each of her four daughters Slater, Rebecca, Hester and Charity; as stated above, she had given £600 in her lifetime to James and Elizabeth Wood. The money left to her children was entrusted to James senior, as all except Elizabeth (i.e. all James's children) were still minors living with him; James was only to take the interest in his lifetime, his portion to be divided up in the same proportions on his death.
On 2 April 1738 the court heard that "James Pollard the son who is upwards of 17 yres of age is desirous to be put apprentice to Robert Wilson of Mark Lane London Cornfactor for a term of 4 yres to commence from ye 22nd day of March last & ye sd Robert Wilson hath agreed to take him as such apprentise for you consñ of 200£ being the usual price on such occasion wch the sd petr James Pollard the father hath agreed unto conceiving it for the benefit of his said son". Officers of the court were instructed to investigate whether Wilson were a suitable person, and if £200 the right price. On 5 April both were found in order, and it was ordered that £200 South Sea stock be sold and the proceeds given to Wilson.
James completed his apprenticeship. On 22 January 1744/5 he was granted a sum of £300 for his personal use. He married Mary Hall in Horsham on 28 February 1745/6. On 21 October 1747 he was given a further £370 10s., which it seems he required "to complete the purchase of an estate contiguous to his farm and lands he now possesses."
James Pollard the father died on 13 February 1748/9. At his death £6018 7s. 2d. remained in Chancery.
On 15 June 1749 his son was finally given the remainder of the estate that was due to him—£1257 9s. 3d. of South Sea annuities.
In 1791 John Hall, second husband of Elizabeth Stoodley, now deceased, took out a bill of complaint in Chancery against the grandchildren of James and Rebecca Pollard, claiming that Elizabeth's share of the inheritance, she having died intestate, should go to him, and not be divided among James and Rebecca's grandchildren. One of the grandchildren named was Samuel Pollard of Horsham.
1. Documents now in the possession of West Sussex Record Office.
2. The following Chancery documents in the National Archives:
No references were found in Decree Rolls (C78 & C79) or Masters' Exhibits (C111).
John Slater was an upholsterer, of St John, Wapping. He married (1) [I16] Rebekah______; their children included Turner (1695 – after 1739), [I12] Rebecca (1696–1737), John (1697 – ?), and Samuel (? – after 1718), the first three being baptised at St John, Shadwell, Middlesex.1
From 1695 to 1697 he was described as a distiller, his residence in 1696 and 1697 being given as Newgravell Lane (in Shadwell). A widower and distiller, living next the Royal Garter in Newgravell Lane, Shadwell, on the 17th September 1700, at St Paul's, Shadwell, he married (2) a widow, Sarah Martin, also of Newgravell Lane; they had a daughter, Sarah (1701 – ?), born in Newgravell Lane.2
He died before the 6th May 1716.3
1 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register of St Paul, Shadwell; the Calendar of Marriage Licence Allegations for London includes an entry for the 25th October 1693, for John Slater and Rebecca Satine
2 baptism register of St Paul, Shadwell; marriage register of St Paul, Shadwell
3 documents now at West Sussex RO
____ Slater married [I15] ____ ____; their children included [I13] John and Samuel.1
He died before the 6th May 1716.2
1 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
2 documents now at West Sussex RO
____ Slater married [I14] ____ ____; their children included [I13] John and Samuel.1
1 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater
Rebekah ______ married [I16] John Slater; their children included Turner (1695 – after 1739), [I12] Rebecca (1696–1737), John (1697 – ?), and Samuel (? – after 1718), the first three being baptised at St John, Shadwell, Middlesex.1
She died near the Royal Garter in Newgravell Lane (Shadwell), and was buried at St Paul Shadwell on the 9th April 1699.2
1 Chancery records in PRO, Pollard con Slater; parish register of St Paul, Shadwell; the Calendar of Marriage Licence Allegations for London includes an entry for the 25th October 1693, for John Slater and Rebecca Satine
2 parish register of St Paul, Shadwell
The priority has to be locating the birth/baptism and parentage of [I8] James Pollard. There are numerous public member trees on Ancestry purporting to give this information, but none of them give sources. The birth year they cite appears to be based on the year of the baptism of one of the two women named Elizabeth Lillington, while the stated parentage, although remotely possible, is extremely unlikely (both parents are described as being from Warwickshire), and in any case lacks any supporting evidence. Without clear evidence of removal from a more distant county, the birth/baptism event should surely be found in Sussex, or perhaps Surrey (if indeed it hasn't been irretrievably lost). (I might be more willing to consider possibilities from Cornwall or Devon, where many people bearing the name Pollard seem to have originated.) Given its relative proximity to both Petworth and Horsham, I find the Southwick baptism much more likely than the fanciful Warwickshire connection, but am not yet including it as confirmed, pending further verification or at least wider endorsement of this viewpoint.
[I9] Elizabeth Lillington's parentage is a puzzle, as noted above. There appear to be two distinct women of this name, both of them with parents named Thomas and Jane Lillington. It would be good if we could separate out the two Lillington couples.
I would love to find out more about the Slater/Slaughter family. We badly need to identify the birth/baptism and/or parentage of [I13] John Slaughter or Slater, for whom we also need marriage and burial details.
Family history home page | Website home page
This page was last revised on 2023-11-08.
© 2000–2023 Benjamin S. Beck