Mary Pollard, born Spence Watson

Mary Spence Watson was born on the 7th February 1875, at Moss Croft, Gateshead, Durham. At three months old her mother thought her "a most engaging child." At the age of one she wrote that "dear little Mary now toddles about, & grows daily in intelligence & sweetness, & we say of her, as I suppose we said of each of the others in turn, "the sweetest baby ever seen."".1

Even as a baby, she went on the family holidays to Norway, in 1876 and 1877, accompanied by her nurse. At four she was "bonnie & bewitching", and at five her mother recorded that


Mary is an active little thing, always wanting some employment, delighted to nurse baby, or do any little useful office she can. When the new school opens for the Summer term (in May) she is to go to the Preparatory Class wh we hope will be opened chiefly on the Kindergarten system, for little girls & boys.2

In 1881 she was a scholar, living with her family and four general servants at Bensham Grove, Bensham Road, Gateshead. Her bedroom at Bensham was small, and looked out onto two public houses and mean streets—but she never wanted to change it. At the kindergarten, among other things, she was "learning to sing so nicely." At Christmas of 1881 Mary played (or read the part of) Tiny Tim in the family's production of A Christmas Carol. In 1882 she went to Norway for the summer with her family. That Christmas she played Cinderella in her sister Ruth's production; and at Christmas 1883 she played the Duke of Norfolk in the family's Richard II. By 1883 she was attending the Gateshead High School for Girls, winning the prize for reading in 1884, and a prize for recitation in 1886; she was still at school there in 1888. In 1885 she had again summered in Norway. Her aunt Caroline Richardson, at this time, found her "a fascinating child, so good & sensible & practical". "She is quite different to the others a truly 'charming variety' as gardeners say. Her humour & naivete make her a gay companion & yet she has such solid capacity." At the end of August 1886 she spent a week at Heugh Folds, Grasmere, with her younger siblings, during which she made her first ascent of Helvellyn. That Christmas she played Mrs Bouncer in the family Box and Cox.3

In February 1887 she visited Lewes with her mother. Later that year she holidayed with her family at Ørnaes, inside the Arctic Circle. In December that year she won two school prizes, for term work and exam work. The following year the family again holidayed at Ørnaes, and then from November she spent six months in Dresden, with her eldest sister Mabel, learning German, music and drawing (in December her mother wrote to Mabel, expressing concern about the direction Mary's drawing lessons were taking). They returned with their parents via Berlin, where they saw the Kaiser, Bismarck, and the King of Italy. By 1888 Mary was apparently already toying with vegetarianism, as she notes with satisfaction that her mother didn't make Bertha or herself eat meat while she was away.4

In July 1889 her mother noted:


Mary is going to York in August, poor little Mary—we believe it is for her good, & that she will, after the first few weeks are over, be very happy—but the parting will be a great trial on both sides. She is such a sensitive fastidious little thing that we know there will be many pangs, but she needs a little sterner discipline—a little recognition that her own feelings, her own pains & pleasures are not of all importance—still we know how her loving little heart will suffer—& dread it for her.5

On the 7th June 1889 her parents applied for her admission to The Mount School, York, and she started school there in August, a pupil there for three years. The 1891 census finds her as a scholar, living at the school in Driffield Terrace, Micklegate, York. In later years her schoolfriend May Bradley reminisced about school life with Mary: "I used to think you the jolliest girl in the School and, do you remember, how you tried to make one do naughty things? Hiding under the teacher's desk was one . . ."; she recalled "sitting next a smiling bright eyed Mary Spence Watson, whose lips whispered mischiefvous things & whose long lovely brown hair, was hanging down her back". One piece of mischief was when, on finally giving in to badgering to perform at the school concert, a short piano solo by Mary Spence Watson was announced, upon which she sat down at the piano, played a scale, and walked off. Partly, incidents such as these reflected her shyness and natural diffidence. Yet she didn't really make the best use of her school time—possibly she felt she couldn't meet the demanding requirements of her parents, and couldn't live up to their reputation.6 Mary herself recalled:


My parents sent me to the Mount, to cure my self will & selfishness (I was spoilt, though not by them,) but though it did me good in some ways it certainly was not good for my health, but it was very spartan in those days, quite different from now.7

Mary, Bertha & Arnold Spence Watson

Mary, Bertha and Arnold Spence Watson

In 1890 Mary holidayed with the family at Osen, Norway. Of her holidays at that time she recorded "No children could ever have had such a happy time as we did" . . .8

In 1891 she took out a 5s. subscription to the Friends of Russian Freedom, renewing annually till at least 1894.9

Mary had great difficulty in coming to decisions, including the important ones about her own future. She left the Mount in June 1892. Her parents, despairing of knowing what was the best for her, decided to send her on a domestic science course, with a view to her teaching the skills she learned. In January 1893, she went away to the School of Domestic Economy in Edinburgh, where in September she was living at 3 Atholl Crescent (she had spent the whole of July on holiday with her family in Wales). Though by October that year she was growing weary of the subject, in April 1895 she was notified that she had been awarded the 1st Class Diploma in Plain & High Class Cookery, of the Northern Counties School of Cookery, as well as a 2nd class for Laundry. She undertook some teaching practice as part of her training, but doesn't seem to have taken up teaching as a profession at any time. At some point, at this period, her parents sent her to live for a month with the family of one of their servants, to learn at first hand what life was like for those less privileged than herself; they may have felt that Mary was finding life a little too easy; the lesson was salutary.10

In July 1894 she holidayed with the family in Norway, her diary recording her feeling of shame that even on her ninth visit there she could still speak no Norwegian (and in 1896 she stated explicitly that she knew no language but English). On this occasion she tried skiing, or 'snow-shoeing' for the first time. Around 1895–6 she performed the naming ceremony at the launch of the Low Walker at her uncle John Wigham Richardson's Neptune shipyard; she carried out the same role for the steel screw steamer Elizabeth Rickmers, in March 1896.11

In January 1894 Mary recorded going with her father to the Northumbrian Small Pipes competition, and was sufficiently attracted to piping that in April she recorded that she wanted to learn to play them herself, actually had a go in August, and in November bought a set of pipes for £3.6.0. By February 1895 she was taking piping lessons from Richard Mowat, the competition winner.12

In April 1896 she acted as bridesmaid at her sister Mabel's wedding in Newcastle. Later that year she spent three weeks touring North Italy with her sister Evelyn, as well as a month later in the year in Ireland, where she did a lot of walking—over 90 miles, in one week.13

Mary, Bertha & Arnold Spence Watson, in a stolkjoere in Norway

Mary, Bertha and Arnold Spence Watson, in a stolkjoere in Norway

youthful cdv of Mary Spence Watson

Throughout August of 1897 she was on a yachting tour off the coast of Scotland, aboard the Griffin. It was here that the romance with Francis Pollard developed.4

By May of 1898 the romance was evidently proving problematic. Mary was very reserved about expressing her love, and seemed constantly beset by doubts, so that the relationship was constantly vacillating.15

In the summer of that year Mary spent six weeks with her parents and her sister Bertha in the Dauphiné Alps—her first Alpine climb with her father. She wore 'rational' dress for the purpose; she was also one of the first lady cyclists in the Tyneside area to adopt this form of dress. By the date of this holiday it is also clear that Mary had committed herself to teetotalism.16

In April 1899 she visited Ireland, and in July spent three weeks in Plombieres, in Vosges, with her sister Ruth. While there she weighed herself, finding herself, at 9 st. 1 lb., four pounds heavier than she'd been in Ireland, a difference she put down to vegetarianism, which she'd evidently recently adopted. In August she went on a yachting holiday, from Oban, with her family. At the end of September she began visiting the workhouse on a regular basis. At the end of November, at a Friends' soirée, she first saw the cinematograph demonstrated. In March 1900 her nerve (and Bertha's) was commended by Cronwright Schreiner, after the disturbance outside Bensham Grove during his visit. In the summer of 1900 she again holidayed in Switzerland.17

By November 1900 Mary had taken a position in nursing at the Infirmary, Leicester. She stayed there six months, the 1901 census recording her there as a pupil hospital nurse.18

The summer holiday of 1901 was spent with her family at Loch Maree, a holiday Mary particularly enjoyed.19

By 1902 she had defined a role for herself in her workhouse visiting—that of reading aloud to blind women inmates: she recorded reading Pilgrim's Progress and Uncle Tom's Cabin to them.20 In April that year she was bridesmaid at her sister Bertha's wedding in Newcastle.21

By 1902–3 she was receiving income in her own name from shareholdings, including holdings in the Redheugh Bridge and Electric Supply companies. Still living at home, she paid this over to her mother.22

In April 1903 she went on a month's tour of Tunisia, with her sister and brother-in-law Bertha and Bowes Morrell. Dressed in her rationals, they went everywhere on muleback. While in Tunisia, they visited a harem, of which Mary gives an interesting account in her diary.23

In the middle of 1903 Mary was feeling uncertain of her place in the world, and where her work should lie. Francis Pollard put it to her that perhaps her vocation was to be the head of a family. Whether this argument was persuasive can't be stated; but in August, on the platform of Northallerton station, she finally agreed to marry him. By the beginning of September, she had told her family of her engagement. On the 11th of that month Frank wrote to her: "What amuses me, madam, is that although thou has been swearing all thy life to be an old maid, & art still swearing not to be married for 'ages', yet thou has evidently carefully considered where to get married, what to wear, how to get the most presents, how many rooms (not to mention beds) to have, how to do without a servant, what kind of socks to make, & what time thy husband ought to retire to rest. Reconcile these things, my dear! are they all within the last week?"24

In October 1903 she spent a fortnight in southern Ireland.25

At some point Mary had herself become active in the Gateshead Liberal Party—she was an indefatigable treasurer of the Gateshead Women's Liberal Association till her resignation at the end of 1903.26

In February and March of 1904 she spent six weeks in Algeria, with her parents.27

signature of Mary S.W. PollardMary was still beset by doubts about marriage, and at the end of May she was still trying to persuade Frank to defer the wedding till Christmas, "but he was obdurate, and perhaps I'll be glad!". In June, at a temperance festival, she had her palm read, and recorded the reading with apparent approval: "Said I was wilful, fair amount of mental ability, cd play well with practise, rather changeable, agreeable to people, secretive, like things neat, not showy . . ." Just three weeks before their wedding, Mary noted: "We can't agree on papers & carpets which is distressing. Will we agree on anything?" On the 3rd August 1904, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, Mary Spence Watson married [I2] Francis Edward Pollard, at the Friends' meeting house, All Saints, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The bride was simply but tastefully attired in satin. The couple received 230 wedding presents, not just from relations but also from family friends and well-wishers, including Lady Trevelyan, Mr & Mrs J.W. Graham, Arnold Rowntree, Thomas Pumphrey, Joseph Rowntree, Seebohm Rowntree, John Wilhelm Rowntree, Mr & Miss Volkhovsky, Canon Moore Ede, and three of the maids at Bensham Grove. After a reception at Bensham Grove, Mary and Frank honeymooned on the Isle of Arran, returning to Bensham for one night at the beginning of September, before moving into their new home.28




In the presence of a large gathering of relatives and friends, the wedding took place yesterday afternoon at the Friends' Meeting House, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, of Mr Francis Edward Pollard, of Bootham School, York, son of the late Mr W. Pollard, of Eccles, and Miss May [sic] Spence Watson, daughter of Dr R. Spence Watson, of Bensham Grove, Gateshead. The bridesmaids were Miss Spence Watson, and Miss Yewdell, of Leeds. Mr Sturge, of York, officiated as best man. Amongst those present were Dr Spence Watson, Mrs Spence Watson, Mr T. Pumphrey, Mr J. Wigham Richardson, Mr Lionel Clapham, Mr Henry Armstrong, the Rev Canon Moore Ede, Mr Jefferson Stephens, Mr C.J. Dymond, Mr Percy Corder, the Rev Mr Pollard (brother of the bridegroom), Mr James Watson, Mr David Richardson, Dr Merz, Mr J.W. Edmondson, and Mr Henry Richardson, and many ladies. At the close of the wedding ceremony a short address was delivered by Mr T. Pumphrey, followed by a prayer by Mr Dymond. Canon Moore Ede also gave a brief address. A reception, which was numerously attended, was afterwards held at the residence of the bride's parents. The wedding presents included a beautiful silver dish from the Gateshead Women's Liberal Association, and a breakfast dish from the employees of Dr Spence Watson. Later the happy pair proceeded to Scotland, where the honeymoon is to be spent.

Shields Daily News, 1904-08-04

Frank and Mary Pollard

On the 3rd September 1904 the couple took up residence at 18 Bootham Crescent, York. Ten days later their one servant—Jennie Wedgewood, a day girl of 13, on 2/6 a week—began work there. Only a month later Mary was again looking for a servant, a situation often to be repeated during her married life. Frank and Mary's children were: Robert Spence Watson (1907–1984), Margaret Watson (1909–1986), Caroline Watson (1912–1987), and (I1) Ruth (1914–1982).29

In March 1905 Mary and her new servant Nellie surprised a burglar in flagrante, at her sister Mabel's house, but subsequently was unable to identify him at a parade.30

From mid-April to May of 1905 Mary was in the Canary Islands with her parents and her sister Ruth. Conditions in the hotel sound somewhat primitive, for she notes that they "had an awful time catching huge cockroaches, centipedes & mosquitoes in our bedrooms." For part of this time Mary acted as amanuensis to Robert Spence Watson, who was writing his History of the National Liberal Federation; she took about half an hour's dictation a day. She brought a praying mantis back to England with her.31

In October Mary attended her first WLA committee in York, and immediately took an active part in Liberal activities there, collecting subscriptions and canvassing in the municipal elections. In the autumn term of 1905 Mary was giving private music lessons, for which she received £2/10/-. In February 1906 she began visiting the men's ward at the workhouse, although initially she didn't enjoy it; in March she began reading The Pickwick Papers to them. That summer Mary and Frank spent a month in Ireland. Mary's cultural tastes were evidently quite broad, for in September she was quite excited to see Newcastle United beat Everton 1-0 at home, while in November she attended a concert given by the contralto Clara Butt.32

Their first child, Robert Spence Watson (1907–1984), was born at the beginning of 1907, at 18 Bootham Crescent. When the midwife arrived, Mary noted, "I felt as if I could weep gallons. I don't want our present happy life disturbed." The couple took on a nurse for Robert. Their six-week summer holiday that year was at Coxwold and Bridlington.33

The family spent three weeks in Grasmere in April 1908.34

A serious reader, from at least 1897 Mary kept detailed records of her reading. On average, from 1897 to 1908 she read about 39 books each year, of which the great majority were quite high-brow—classics, &c. From 1910 to 1943 she averaged 37 books a year. As the years moved on, she spent more time reading—from 1944 to 1953 she averaged 61 books a year; in the final four years of her life, her average had reached 82.35

On the 13th June 1908 Mary and her sister Bertha helped carry the York banner at the great Women's Suffrage Procession in London; Mary had a seat on the platform, at the assembly in the Albert Hall. She found it "a great and memorable day."36

In August 1908 the family holidayed at Bensham and Kirk Newton.37

From September that year until February 1939 Mary employed a regular maid, of whom ten were employed for an appreciable length of time. They were paid £12 or £14 p.a., when just starting out, or £20-27 if experienced.38

In 1909 the Pollards' first daughter, Margaret Watson (1909–1986), was born at 18 Bootham Crescent. At the end of that year they moved to 44 Queen Anne's Road, York, which they rented.39

In January 1910, after a political meeting, Mary was introduced to Lloyd George (at that time Chancellor of the Exchequer) whom she found very nice, finding the occasion most exciting.40

During the childhood of their children, the Pollards received periodic financial help from Mary's parents, as well as from her aunt Caroline Richardson; she continued to receive payments from Aunt Car's estate into the 1920s.41

In April of 1910 the family spent a fortnight at Heugh Folds. In August they holidayed at Bensham and at Beadnell.42

In February of 1911 the Pollards spent a month touring Italy. At the Castle Rotonda they had a "rather interesting" experience: ". . . we were rewarded by seeing some flying machines, I think a monoplane, rather graceful like a dragonfly in the distance, & a biplane. When they are near they make a horrid noise." Their holiday was interrupted by the telegram announcing Mary's father's death; they immediately returned home for the funeral, but decided to resume their continental tour afterwards. This took them in the next couple of months, to Greece, Palestine and Egypt. Though clearly a fascinating holiday, Mary was too close to her recent loss to enter into the spirit of the occasion. In August of 1911 the family holidayed at Dunstansteads and at Bensham. At Christmas that year her account books record that she catered for nine people and two maids.43

In 1912 a second daughter, Caroline Watson (1912–1987), was born at 44 Queen Anne's Road.44

In August 1912 the family holidayed at Rayheugh Farm, and at Dunstansteads. They spent a couple of weeks at Bensham over the Christmas and New Year of 1912–3.45

In March 1913 Mary attended a political meeting on the subject of women's suffrage. The meeting was disrupted by suffragettes, whom she found "revolting", finding shameful their obstruction of free speech. In this connection one may mention, parenthetically, Mary's renowned gullibility, an illustration of which is that she was once persuaded of the existence of a cuckoo clock which said "Votes for Women" every half hour.46

The family spent a fortnight at Grasmere in April that year. At the end of June Mary attended a women's suffrage procession in Harrogate, leafleting for the cause. Through August and September the family holidayed at Bensham and at Bamborough. In October she was again leafleting for women's suffrage; on the 14th of that month it fell to Mary to propose the affiliation of the local Women's Liberal Association to the Liberal Women's Suffrage Union (the vote went against her).47

In February 1914 she spent a fortnight at Bensham. In April the family spent a further two weeks at Sleights. On the 10th July that year they moved house, to 8 Clifton Dale, York.48

On August 4th, while staying at Bensham, Mary wrote in her diary: "During night cd not sleep, because of men shouting that England has declared war on Germany. It is wicked & awful." The following day, curiously, she wrote "If only it was agst Russia." On the 12th October she wrote: "The war gets worse & worse & is terribly depressing. It is awful to be fighting agst Germany."49

In mid-November 1914 the Pollards' youngest child, (I1) Ruth (1914–1982), was born. In the early years of the Pollard family—February 1909 till April 1916—in addition to their maid, they employed a nursemaid for the children, on £12 or £14 p.a. From January 1916 to July 1919 they employed a second maid.50

In April 1915 the family spent three weeks at Oldstead Hall, Coxwold. For six weeks over the summer they stayed at Bensham, apart from one week at Wheel Birks.51

During 1916 Mary witnessed at least three Zeppelin raids, though bombs fell far from the Pollard home. In May of that year she was asked to become President of the York branch of the Women's International League; she refused, but agreed to a Vice-Presidency. In November Mary and Frank helped distribute Ponsonby's leaflet 'Why Must the War Go On' in York, which was later banned under the Defence of the Realm Act. In January 1917 they both attended a lecture by Bertrand Russell, and afterwards met him over coffee at Arnold Rowntree's. For a fortnight in March they gave shelter to the wife and baby of a conscientious objector.52

At some point during the war Frank Pollard was apparently threatened with arrest as a conscientious objector; Mary found the strain at this time very great. In February 1918 she took on as charwoman a German widow of 57, for whom she felt sorry; the woman had to report to the police station every week. In May that year she recorded an interesting encounter she had with some soldiers, in a train compartment: "They were dreadful, & determined to fight on til the Germans are crushed (though one was on his 4th leave!) At last I read my book in despair, but before I left the carriage I told them I did not agree with them in the least, but that I was a Quaker & disapproved of all war, & that I didn't want any of them to be hurt & they "thanked me very much." The women in the carriage took their part so it was 4 to 1."53

On the 14th December, newly enfranchised, Mary voted in what she saw as the unfair khaki election. Determinedly independent, she and Frank voted separate ways, though neither for the successful candidate.54

She spent several weeks at Bensham in the early months of 1919, at the time of her mother's death. For the last half of August that year, Mary was stricken with influenza compounded with an ear abscess.55

From 1916 to 1919 Mary received a total of £444 from the estate of her aunt Caroline Richardson; she gave £50 of this to Leila and Malcolm Sparkes (Malcolm was at that time imprisoned as a conscientious objector, in Wormwood Scrubs). On the 23rd December 1919 Mary received £219-16-1 from the sale of furniture from Bensham Grove; under her mother's will she also receive a fifth of her estate. From mid-1919 until well into the 1920s, she began to receive sporadic, but appreciable, financial support from Bowes and Bertha Morrell; she also received occasional gifts of money from her sister Evelyn Weiss.56

By mid-1920 the family was anticipating removal to Reading. This took place in mid-October of that year, a new home being made at Whiteknights House, in Eastern Avenue.57

After Frank's resignation from his job, the family subsisted on Mary's unearned income. This continued to be sufficient to maintain a maid, as well as paying for weekly visits by a washerwoman and a gardener; Mary always trained the maids herself. She always kept meticulous household accounts, right down to the last halfpenny, balancing them faithfully each week—probably an essential procedure, in view of the uncertainty of the family income.58

The 1921 census finds her occupied in home duties in twelve rooms at Whiteknights House, 29 Eastern Avenue, Reading, living with all her family except her son, as well as a German domestic servant (Marie Dietz) listed as employed by Mary, and an Austrian schoolboy (Anton Niessner); Anton was to stay with them for a year. The family had a fortnight's summer holiday in 1922, at Totland Bay in the Isle of Wight. The following year they holidayed in Switzerland.59

In May 1925 the family moved house within Reading, to 'Fairlight', 9 Denmark Road, which they were later to purchase (March 1928) for £1300. That year she and Frank donated £2.2.0 to Friends' New Premises Appeal.60

They spent three weeks that summer at Heugh Folds, and three weeks the following year on holiday in Pembrokeshire.49 For most of January 1926 Mary was sick with mumps, and quarantined.61

From 1926 until at least 1935 Mary helped to run a children's play hour, at the Folk House in Reading.62

The family spent three weeks at Heugh Folds in 1927; the following year they holidayed on the continent. For three weeks in September 1929 the family holidayed on Arran, on the occasion of the Pollards' silver wedding anniversary. In 1930 they spent a fortnight on a houseboat on the River Yealm, in Devon. For the last three months of that year the Pollards had a French exchange student living with them, for whom Caro made the return visit. For the first quarter of 1931 they took a part-time paying guest. It was at this time that Mary joined the Archaeological Society in Reading. Later that year they holidayed in Normandy; on this occasion, very unusually, Mary recorded that "I was thoroughly bored, & thankful to leave." At the same time as Frank, she made her will in December 1931, leaving all her real and personal estate in trust to her husband, her son, and her brother-in-law John Bowes Morrell, and subsequent to her death to her children equally. In February 1932 she helped open up the Folk House as a recreation room for the unemployed, and herself dispensed tea and cakes at 1d each. In the summer Frank, Mary and Ruth Pollard went on a fortnight's cycling tour of Shropshire, cycling 250 miles in all (by the following August, when the cyclometer she had bought for this holiday broke, she had ridden nearly 1000 miles).63

In May 1933 Mary attended Yearly Meeting, and in November she was asked to become an Elder of Reading meeting. She declined, but agreed to become an Overseer. In November 1933 Frank gave a highly condensed account of Mary's activities: "Mary is busy with Liberal Women, B.W.T.A. [ . . . ], Townswomen's Guild, making plum puddings—as well as her natural & numerous household engagements." She was Registrar of the B.W.T.A. (British Women's Temperance Association) from 1932 to 1938.64

Mary was elected as a member of the XII Book Club in Reading in 1924, and she and Frank participated regularly thereafter, the Book Club sometimes meeting at their house. The Club's minute book records Mary reading to the group once in 1924, once in 1926, three times in 1927, and once in 1931. Mary resigned in May 1951, after Frank's death, whereupon the Book Club made her their first Honorary Member. In June 1934 Mary spent three weeks at Tor Height, Margaret's home, where her first grandchild had just been born.65

In February 1934 she made a codicil to her will, confirming that she left all her personal chattels to her husband. In August Mary (taking Ruth out there) visited Oberharz, in Germany, where she recorded listening to Goebbels on the wireless, regretting that her German wasn't adequate to keep up with the political talk.66

Mary S.W. Pollard

On the 24th January 1935 the Pollards managed to strike a deal on the sale of their house (for £1040), and immediately began looking for a house to rent, as had been their wish since at least November 1932. In February, as ward secretaries for the National Peace Ballot, Mary and Frank were much preoccupied with canvassing and counting of ballot papers. On the 27th March 1935 the Pollards moved to 22 Cintra Avenue, Reading (rent £75 for 3 years, rates about £6); even on a hectic day like this Mary's sense of fun broke through, as she noted that she "did stilts to show Florence" (the maid).67

In July that year Mary and Frank, with Ruth and her boyfriend John, spent three weeks in Cornwall. From October 1935 to March 1936 Mary took German lessons at the university. For a fortnight over the new year she stayed with Ruth in Montpellier. On the 24th January she took Florence to see the lying-in-state of King George V, at Westminster Hall. She spent a fortnight at Tor Height around the beginning of March. On the 11th of that month, after the news that Hitler had moved troops into the demilitarized zone, she noted that "I can hardly sleep with thinking how near we are to war again."68

On the 24th November 1936, Mary took part in a debate at the Townswomen's Guild on 'The girl of to-day is happier than 50 years ago'. She noted "I spoke against, very badly." At the beginning of December, she found the critical week, following the news of the King and Mrs Simpson, most thrilling and dramatic; she approved Baldwin's approach, and considered abdication the best thing.69

In March 1937, after a family suggestion that Mary should buy a £12 radio, she went out and bought an aged but serviceable Morris Cowley car—a two-seater, "with hood and dickey"—for £18—an example of her tendency to be unpredictable (Frank and Ruth were "astonished", Robert thought her "stupid"), though perhaps it shouldn't have occasioned surprise, given that she had taken driving lessons as far back as 1933. The car, bought in the spring, was sold in the autumn. In January 1939 she bought an Austin 7 for £22.10.0; at some point she later bought a Triumph.70

In July that year Frank, Mary and Ruth holidayed in Ireland.71

In March 1938 Mary bought a cottage in Hampshire, for £300. Until she regretfully parted with it in mid-1948, 'Mushroom Cottage' was a popular retreat for family and others—especially valued during the war years.72

In April that year Frank, Mary, Ruth and Caro holidayed in the Netherlands.73

On the 30th August 1938, Mary wrote in her diary, perceptively: "Last night we heard that poor Czecho Slovakia has been sacrificed for the peace of the world & everyone is wild with joy & full of praise of Chamberlain—later one grew more critical, for it is not peace with 'honour' & as he says we must re-arm quickly is it peace at all?"74

Throughout the whole of 1939 a teenaged German Jewish refugee, Wolfgang Weyl, stayed with the Pollards, before emigrating to the USA.75

In August that year the Pollards holidayed with their daughter Margaret Dale, and her family, in the Lake District. The 1939 Register, in September, finds Mary doing unpaid domestic duties, living with her two younger daughters at 22 Cintra Avenue, Reading. In November that year a woman named Joyse came to lodge with them, at 5/- a week plus gas and electricity, also dinners at 1/-.76

In August 1940, on a shopping expedition to London, Mary, Caro and Ruth were caught in air raids; Mary's diaries give an interesting account of this experience. The following month, the Pollards took in, as a paying guest, a young woman friend of Ruth's—Joan Francis—who was expecting a baby, and finding life too risky in Croydon. By October, Mary was regularly helping out with the dinners at the local community centre, for up to 200 evacuees—mostly Jews from the East End of London. Later that month Mary and Joan set up a nursery class for evacuated children, in the community centre in Whitley; Mary soon took sole charge of this. By February of 1941 she was also assisting with the billeting of evacuees. During the Second World War, notwithstanding her basic anti-war position, Mary's diary comments on the progress of the war verge distinctly on the patriotic.77

From March 1939 to September 1941 Mary employed a daily maid only, and in the latter month her maid gave notice, as she wished to work in a factory. From then on, the Pollards never employed a full-time maid, though Mary employed hourly-paid charwomen till at least 1952.78

By August 1942 the Pollards were regularly taking in refugees—though never more than one at a time—as paying guests.79

Mary hardly ever spoke at Meeting, though she did so on the second Sunday of January 1942, in Frank's absence. In November Mary was again made an Overseer of Reading meeting. In this capacity she was remembered as "always thinking of others and one to whom one went when in trouble."80

In March 1944 Mary lent Mushroom Cottage to a woman who had been bombed out of her home in London—apparently a stranger to her. That month she was attending frequent committees for the Free Church Women's Council, with which she remained involved until 1947.81

On VE Day in 1945, Mary wrote in her diary: "It is almost unbelievable that after 5¾ years of terrible war (nearly 6) the Germans have at last surrendered & the awful slaughter ceased. But our bombing of them has been ghastly & as for their concentration camps they were too wicked for words. Many of the Germans sank to the level (or worse) of beasts. Now we must pray that a just & good peace will be made."82

In August 1945 Frank and Mary Pollard spent a fortnight at Heugh Folds, with all their children and their families also in Grasmere. While they were there, the Japanese surrendered. Mary noted: ". . . at last this frightful war is over, but the Atomic bomb was a wicked thing."83

From 1947 to 1951 a Miss Ruthven lodged with them, at 15/- a week, rising to 17/-, including gas and electricity.84


Mary S.W. Pollard, Mushroom Cottage, 1948

Mary S.W. Pollard, Mushroom Cottage, 1948

The Pollards spent a couple of weeks in York, in the summer of 1949.85

In February 1950 Mary worked hard for the Liberals in the general election campaign, addressing envelopes, &c.86

In July she spent a fortnight at her daughter Caro's home. In December, having suffered increasing deafness for a couple of years, she acquired her first hearing-aid.87

At the beginning of 1950 the Pollards decided to start house-hunting, and had in fact just secured a new house when Frank died. His death was a great shock, but one she met with resilience. She took the decision to go ahead with the move, and on the 1st May removed to 'Hawarden', Sulhamstead Road, Burghfield, Reading.88

In April 1951 Mary made a second codicil to her will, substituting her nephew William Bowes Morrell for his father, as one of her executors. On the 4th June she signed as one of the three executors of Frank's will, her address still being given as 22 Cintra Avenue. She spent the last week of June 1951 with the Becks at Fortis Green Avenue, London, and later in the summer spent three weeks with them at their new home in St Albans, before going on to Goathland with them. In July 1951 Mary joined the Anti-Slavery Society. Around the end of May 1952 she spent a couple of weeks with the Hardies; while there, she decided to leave 'Hawarden'. On the 17th September, after 32 years in Reading, she moved to 'Burnside', Homestead Estate, Menston, near Leeds, Yorkshire.89

Mary spent three weeks with the Becks, over the Christmas and New Year of 1952/3. In May of 1953 she made a third codicil to her will, adding her daughter Mary as a trustee and executrix. At the beginning of June 1953, she watched the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II live on television, finding the new queen "wonderful". Later that summer she again spent a couple of weeks in St Albans. On the 4th October she recorded in her diary, "Made my great decision to stay in North." December of 1953 she spent with the Dales, at Mumbles.90

It seems that at Menston Mary was lonely, not knowing many people in the neighbourhood. On 3rd May 1954, therefore, she moved in with the Hardie family, at Netherdale House, Eldwick, near Bingley, Yorkshire. In July, and again in November, she spent a fortnight or so staying at St Albans.91

She spent a further fortnight with the Becks in February 1955, and while there participated in a memorable family celebration of her 80th birthday. Later that month she had a bad faint, at bedtime, and noted in her diary, evidently shocked, "Thought it the end". Though ill for a week, she was well enough by mid-April to visit her niece Lydia Morrell at Malahide in Ireland, and to spend a further fortnight in St Albans.92

In mid-May she voted conservative in her local election—the only occasion at this period upon which she noted in her diary how she cast her vote, so perhaps exceptional—although only a few days later she records hearing Harold Macmillan speak, so perhaps her political sympathies were beginning to lean to the right.93

She spent a fortnight at York in June. In August she sold her most recent motor car, which occasioned some sadness. She spent a fortnight at St Albans in October 1955, and three weeks there in June 1956. In August that year she took a fortnight's holiday at Heugh Folds, with the Becks.94

From her marriage in 1904 to 1957 Mary kept detailed accounts, including most of her annual summary accounts. These cover her spending on the household and her family, but don't include Frank's own spending, and don't include income. Some points from these accounts95:

Mean annual spending on housekeeping, 1909/1950: £235.56 (decimalised)

Highest spending year, housekeeping: 1920/21 – £235.56

Lowest spending year, housekeeping: 1910/11 – £123.16

Mean annual spending, food only, 1909/1957: £105.33

Highest spending year, food only: 1920/21 – £166.43

Lowest spending year, food only: 1952/53 – £51.01

Mean food expenses per person per week, 1909/1950: £0.49

Highest year for food expenses per person per week: 1949/50 – £0.89

Lowest year food expenses per person per week: 1911/12 – £0.29

Mean annual spending on wages, 1909/1957: £32.71

Highest spending year, wages: 1940/41 – £55.88

Lowest spending year, wages: 1955/56 – £11.93


Mean annual spending, her own dress, 1910/1957: £22.57

Highest spending year, her own dress: 1948/49 – £40.96

Lowest spending year, her own dress: 1943/44 – £6.29


Dress for Robert was itemised 1910/1924 (annual mean £9.97), for Margaret 1910/1928 (annual mean £8.25), for Caro 1912/1931 (annual mean £9.44), and for Ruth 1915/1932 (annual mean £7.05).

In July 1956 Mary made a fourth codicil to her will, bequeathing £5 to each of her grandchildren. In 1957 she attended an old people's club for a time, but tended to find it boring, and didn't like the childish games played there. Around the end of April 1957 she spent ten days with the Becks; she spent a couple of weeks in York, around the beginning of July. In August she made a fifth codicil, revoking her fourth, and raising the sum bequeathed to each grandchild to £10.96

In April Mary gave £300 to each of her daughters, as part of her two thirds interest in the proceeds of the sale of Netherdale House (where she was still living); the same day, though, in a sixth codicil, she also directed her trustees to purchase from her daughters Margaret and Ruth their £300 share of the same. That month she spent three weeks in St Albans; then in August the family reunited for a week, at Middleton-in-Teesdale—all the families of all her children present with her there. She spent two weeks over the Christmas and New Year of 1958–9 with the Becks.97

Mary S.W. Pollard in old age

Mary hadn't perhaps really been able to feel settled, at Netherdale, and with the children growing up round her may have felt she wasn't getting quite the peace and quietness that she wanted. In 1957 Bowes Morrell had shown her round the Ingram's Almshouses in York, that he had acquired; she had found them delightful. Possibly, in his loneliness after the death of his wife Bertha, Mary's sister, Bowes may have persuaded Mary to move to York, partly for his own companionship. Whatever her reason actually was, Mary moved into 1 Ingram Flats, Bootham, York, on the 19th October 1959. The following month, for reasons unclear, she made a seventh codicil to her will, saying that nothing in her will related to any mortgages, charges, securities, or real property which she may own at her death.98

By February 1960 her son Robert was concerned about Mary's mental well-being, and there was talk of her returning to Netherdale rather than being left alone. She spent a week and half with the Beck family, in July 1960.99

Increasingly infirm, around February 1961 Mary went back to stay with the Hardies at Netherdale.100

It was said of her that she gave loyal and unfailing support to her husband in his public work for peace and for the Liberal Party and later to her children in the causes to which they devoted themselves. She shared in the life of Reading meeting and also provided a home background for young people and others needing rest or relaxation or those in trouble . . . She was always ready with sympathy and help and although not seeking the limelight for herself was adventurous and had a zest for meeting people and for new experiences. She was a woman of vigour, who inspired great affection. At the same time she was not an easy person to get to know—strong in her opinions and principles, and rather trailing the clouds of glory of her exceptional upbringing; she was also a very shy person, underestimating her own worth, and too willing to defer to others.102

For nearly 40 years she was a member of the Association for Moral and Social Hygiene; she was also a member of the Friends' Temperance Union, the National Anti-Vaccination League, and in later years of the Euthanasia Society.103

She was always a great letter-writer, but increased this activity after 1951, and did not stop writing letters until about 7 days before her death.104


Mary S.W. Pollard, with Kathie Hardie, in York

In October 1961 Mary made an eighth codicil to her will, expressing her wish that her body be made available for anatomical examination as per the Anatomy Acts 1832 and 1871, and authorising her executors to pay reasonable expenses for so doing—though she rued the fact that she would never know what they would find out. By December she was feeling alone and tired, and had effectively given up the will to live; she was refusing food, and badgering her doctor to join the Euthanasia Society. On the 28th January 1962 she died at Netherdale, of coronary artery disease and senility. Her body was left to the Leeds School of Anatomy. A memorial service was held at the Friends' meeting house on Clifford Street, York, at 1pm on Friday the 2nd February. At probate of her will, her effects were valued at £26,836.12.0 (£410,606 at 2005 values).105

Mary Spence Watson was the fifth child, and fourth daughter, of [M2] Robert and [O1] Elizabeth Spence Watson.106



1 birth certificate; TNA: RG 11/5033 f97 p14; letters from Elizabeth Spence Watson to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); Elizabeth Spence Watson: 'Family Chronicles/Home Records', and supplement; The Friend NS XV.Apr:107; Mount School admission register

2 Reminiscences of Robert Spence Watson; Percy Corder: The Life of Robert Spence Watson. London: Headley, 1914; Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"

3 RG 11/5033 f97 p14; Mary S.W. Pollard's 'A Few Reminiscences'; inscription in book now at TWAS; report card now at TWAS, letters from Caroline Richardson to Mary or Elizabeth Spence Watson; Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard (Ms); Heugh Folds visitors' book, in possession of Elisabeth Ryan; Bensham Grove visitors' books; Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 1886-02-22; Newcastle Journal, 1979-02-20, which includes a group photo including her by name, though the BNA reproduction is too poor for her to be identified

4 letters to Mabel Spence Watson, TWAS, including Acc. 213/256; Corder, op. cit.; catalogue of Tyne & Wear Archives Service; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels, Ms; Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"

5 Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"

6 letters from Mabel Spence Watson to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); Mount Old Scholars Annual Report, 1983; letter from May Bradley to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); interview with Sidney Beck, begun Easter 1986; TNA: RG 12/3887 f119 p4; The Mount School, York. List of Teachers and Scholars 1784–1816, 1831–1906. 1906, York: Sessions; Mount School admission register

7 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard (Ms); Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels; Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"

8 letter from Mary S.W. Pollard to Caro Hardie, 1960-09-17, in my possession

9Free Russia

10 interview with Sidney Beck; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard—birthday book; letters from Robert to Mary Spence Watson; letter from Northern Counties School of Cookery to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); Elizabeth Spence Watson's "Family Chronicles"; Mary Spence Watson's Knitting &c. notes; The Mount School, York. List of Teachers and Scholars 1784–1816, 1831–1906. 1906, York: Sessions

11 Mary Spence Watson, Commonplace Book; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Newcastle Daily Chronicle, 1896-03-30

12 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

13 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letter of 1896-04-25 from Evelyn to Robert and Elizabeth Spence Watson, now at TWAS; book of newspaper cuttings compiled by Robert Spence Watson, now in Newcastle Central Library

14 letter from Hugh Richardson to Mary Spence Watson 1 June 1897; Francis E Pollard: diary; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

15 letters from Frank Pollard

16 Mary S.W. Pollard's 'A Few Reminiscences'; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

17 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels; Craven, Ann (2004) 'Elizabeth Spence Watson: a Quaker working for peace and women's suffrage in nineteenth century Newcastle and Gateshead' , MA dissertation, University of Newcastle upon Tyne

18 letters from Elizabeth Spence Watson to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); letters from Robert to Mary Spence Watson; letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Mss of speeches; TNA: RG 13/3010

19 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels; letter from Mary Spence Watson to Molly Richardson, 1901-09-16, possessed by Paul Thomas

20 Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

21 Newcastle Daily Leader 1902-04-03

22 Mary S W Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c; Ms

23 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

24 letters from Frank Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Italian Tour diary (Ms)

25 letters from Frank Pollard

26 1903 Annual Report of the Gateshead Women's Liberal Association

27 Elizabeth Spence Watson: Album / holiday itinerary, now at TWAS; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

28 DQB; marriage certificate; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c; Ms; The Friend XLIV:546, The British Friend XIII Aug:240; book of newspaper cuttings compiled by Robert Spence Watson, now in Newcastle Central Library

29-30 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

31 letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

32 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

33 letters from Lucy Pollard to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Journal; source mislaid; The Friend XLVII:64, 1907-01-25

34 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

35 Mary Spence Watson, Commonplace Book; Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897–1908, and sequels

36-37 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

38 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

39 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S W Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c.; The Friend XLIX:192, 1909-03-19, The British Friend XVIII Apr:112

40 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

41 Mary S W Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c.

42 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

43 Mary S.W. Pollard: Italian Tour diary; Mary S.W. Pollard: Diary of tour of Greece, Palestine, & Egypt, 1911; Ms; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: account books

44 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; source mislaid; The Friend LII:374, 1912-05-31, The British Friend XXI June:180

45 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

46 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; according to Erica Weiss it was Ernest Weiss who convinced Mary of the cuckoo clock story—this is reported in a letter to me from Ruth Beck, 1982-02-02

47–49 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

50 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; daughter's birth certificate; Ruth Beck: Memoirs

51 Mary S.W. Pollard: Reading register, 1897-1908, and sequels

52 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

53 draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W.Pollard; letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

54 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

55 letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

56 letters from Bertha Morrell to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); Mary S W Pollard—book of accounts, wedding gifts, &c.; will and probate of Elizabeth Spence Watson

57 letters from Nellie Gurney to Mary Spence Watson (Pollard); Ruth Beck: Memoirs, DQB; letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard (Whiteknights/White Knights)

58 Ruth Beck: Memoirs; interview with Sidney Beck

59 Ruth Beck: Memoirs; Ruth Pollard: diary; RG 15/6012 RD121 SD3 ED21

60 Ruth Beck: Memoirs; letters from Frank Pollard; The Friend LXV Supp.:7 1925-10-09; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

61 Ruth Pollard: diary; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

62 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

63 letters from Frank Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; will

64 Ruth Pollard: diary; letters from Frank Pollard; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

65 letters from Frank Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 92:448, 1934-05-18

66 will and codicil; Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; interview with Sidney Beck; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; XII Book Club Minute Book, Reading Experience Database; letter to Mary Pollard from Margaret J. Dilks, in my possession

67 letters of Mary S.W. Pollard; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

68 Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

69–70 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

71 Ruth Beck: Memoirs; The Friend 6 Apr 1962; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Mary S.W. Pollard: account books

72 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

73 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; information from Sidney Beck; draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W.Pollard

74–75 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Frank and Mary Pollard visitors' books

76 Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Ruth Beck: Memoirs; letter from Ernst C.E. Eberstadt, in my possession

77 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; 1939 England and Wales Register (TNA: RG 101); Mary S.W. Pollard: account books

78 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; my own knowledge or hypothesis

79–80 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

81 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W.Pollard; Sidney & Ruth Beck's Mass-Observation diaries (D 5021 & 4247)

82–87 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; possibly Mary's hearing had been suffering for some time, in view of her letter to The Friend of 1934-05-18 (92:448), pleading for more audible speakers at Yearly Meeting.

88 Mary S.W. Pollard: account books

89 Frank Pollard grant of probate; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; The Friend 6 Apr 1962; information from Sidney Beck; Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; interview with Sidney Beck; letter from Mary S.W. Pollard to Caro Hardie, in my possession

90 Sidney Beck: Ms Diary; S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; information from Sidney Beck; autograph book presented to MSWP by Reading Meeting, 1952; Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; will and codicils; Mary S.W. Pollard: account books; letter from C.W.W. Greenidge, in my possession

91 S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

92 Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; interview with Sidney Beck; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book

93 S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; letter from Mary S.W. Pollard to Caro Hardie, in my possession

94 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

95 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book

96 will and codicils; diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard

97 will and codicils; S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; Sidney Beck: Ms Diary

98 diaries of Mary S.W. Pollard; Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; interview with Sidney Beck; will; information from Sidney Beck; index to wills and administrations, Principal Registry of the Family Division; the 1958 electoral register records her at Netherdale House, Saltaire Road, Bingley

99 S.J. & R. Beck, Visitors' Book; letter from Robert S.W. Pollard to Caro Hardie, in my possession

100 Visitors Book, Frank & Mary Pollard, 1928–61; interview with Sidney Beck; letter from Margaret Dale to Caro Hardie, 1961-01-29, in my possession

101 interview with Sidney Beck

102 DQB; The Shield, Nov. 1962 (organ of the Josephine Butler Soc.); interview with Sidney Beck

103 The Shield, Nov. 1962; draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W. Pollard

104 draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W. Pollard

105 letter from Robert S.W. Pollard to Caro Hardie, in my possession; death certificate; will, codicils, and grant of probate; draft testimony to MSWP, by Robert S.W. Pollard; The Friend 120:146, 1962-02-02

106 birth certificate; Corder, op. cit.; marriage certificate


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